1989 explores the momentous events following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the effects they have had on our world ever since. Based on documents, interviews, and television broadcasts from Washington, London, Paris, Bonn, Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow, and a dozen other locations, 1989 describes how Germany unified, NATO expansion began, and Russia got left on the periphery of the new Europe. This updated edition contains a new afterword with the most recent evidence on the 1990 origins of NATO's post-Cold War expansion.
Mary Elise Sarotte is Visiting Professor of Government and History at Harvard University and Dean's Professor of History at the University of Southern California. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the author of The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall.
List of Illustrations ix Preface: A Brief Note on Scholarship and Sources xi Abbreviations xvi Introduction: Creating Post-Cold War Europe: 1989 and the Architecture of Order 1 Chapter 1: What Changes in Summer and Autumn 1989? 11 Tiananmen Fails to Transfer 16 The Americans Step Back 22 The Status Quo Ceases to Convince 25 East German Self-Confidence Rises 28 Television Transforms Reality 38 Chapter 2: Restoring Four-Power Rights, Reviving a Confederation in 1989 48 On the Night of November 9 50 What Next? 62 The Four (Occupying?) Powers 65 Candy, Fruit, and Sex 68 The Portugalov Push 70 Specters Revive 76 The Restoration and Revival Models Fall Apart 81 Chapter 3: Heroic Aspirations in 1990 88 The Round Table 92 Counterrevolution? 95 The Consequences of the Brush with a Stage of Terror 99 Emerging Controversy over Reparations and NATO 103 "NATO's Jurisdiction Would Not Shift One Inch Eastward" 107 Property Pluralism 115 Chapter 4: Prefab Prevails 119 The Security Solution: Two lus Four Equals NATO 120 The Political Solution: Article 23 129 The Economic Solution: Monetary Union 132 The Election Campaign and the Ways of the Ward Heeler 135 The Results of March 18 142 Reassuring European Neighbors 145 Chapter 5: Securing Building Permits 150 The First Carrot: Money 152 The Washington Summit 160 The Second Carrot: NATO Reform 169 Breakthrough in Russia 177 Pay Any Price 186 Conclusion: The Legacy of 1989 and 1990 195 Counterfactuals 196 Consequences 201 Afterword to the New Edition - Revisiting 1989-1990 and the Origins of NATO Expansion 215 Introduction: Fading Memories 215 Bearing Unwelcome Tidings 216 Genscher's Thinking on NATO Expansion to Eastern Europe in 1990 219 The Split Between Bush and Baker 221 Kohl and Gorbachev 223 The Consequences of Camp David 226 Conclusion: The Persistence of Preferred Memories 228 Acknowledgments 230 Notes 235 Bibliography 307 Index 337