A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport: An Integrated Approach with Chemistry, Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Environmental Legislation

A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport: An Integrated Approach with Chemistry, Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Environmental Legislation

By: Elliot Anders (author), Frank Dunnivant (author)Hardback

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Description

A uniquely accessible text on environmental modeling designed for both students and industry personnel Pollutant fate and modeling are becoming increasingly important in both regulatory and scientific areas. However,the complexity of the software and models often act as an inhibitor to the advancement of water quality science. A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport fills the need for a basic instructional tool for students and environmental professionals who lack the rigorous mathematical background necessary to derive the governing fate and transport equations. Taking a refreshingly simple approach to the subject that requires only a basic knowledge of algebra and first-year college chemistry, the book presents and integrates all of the aspects of fate and transport, including chemistry, modeling, risk assessment, and relevant environmental legislation; approaching each topic first conceptually before introducing the math necessary to model it. The first half of the book is dedicated to the chemistry and physics behind the fate and transport models, while the second half teaches and reinforces the logical concepts underlying fate and transport modeling. This better prepares students for support jobs in the environmental arena surrounding chemical industry and Superfund sites. Contributing to the book's ease of use are: An extremely user-friendly software program, Fate, which uses basic models to predict the fate and transport of pollutants in lakes, rivers, groundwater, and atmospheric systems The use of "canned" models to evaluate the importance of model parameters and sensitivity analysis A wealth of easy-to-understand examples and problems A chapter on environmental legislation in the United States and Europe A set of lab exercises, as well as a downloadable set of teaching aids A much-needed basic text for contemporary hydrology or environmental chemistry courses and support courses forthe environmental industry, this is a valuable desk reference for educators and industry professionals.

About Author

FRANK M. DUNNIVANT is an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at Whitman College in Washington State and has worked for several labs, such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory, and the Swiss Federal Institute for Water and Wastewater Pollution. He has extensive experience with practical applications, research, and writing on environmental engineering and analytical science. ELLIOT ANDERS holds a degree in environmental chemistry and has extensive programming experience. He is the cofounder of Educational Solutions, a company that produces a variety of software products for college use. Currently he works as a Network Technician in the public school system.

Contents

PREFACE xv To the Instructor xvi To the Student xvi To the Environmental Professional xvi How to Use the Book with Fate (R) and Associated Software xvii Acknowledgments xvii SYMBOLS xix GLOSSARY xxi PART I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 SOURCES AND TYPES OF POLLUTANT, WHY WE NEED MODELING, AND HISTORICAL CONTAMINATION EVENTS 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 The Need for Modeling of Pollutants in Environmental Media 4 1.3 Pollution Versus Contamination; Pollutant Versus Contaminant 5 1.4 Pollution Classifications 5 1.5 Sources of Pollution 6 1.6 Historic Examples of Where Fate and Transport Modeling are Useful 16 1.6.1 Surface Water 16 1.6.2 Groundwater 20 1.6.3 Atmosphere 25 1.7 Environmental Laws 26 References 26 PART II CHEMISTRY OF FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELING CHAPTER 2 BASIC CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN POLLUTANT FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELING 31 2.1 The Liquid Medium: Water and the Water Cycle 31 2.2 Unique Properties of Water 33 2.3 Concentration Units 39 2.4 Chemical Aspects of Environmental Systems 40 2.4.1 pH 40 2.4.2 Activity 40 2.4.3 Solubility 45 2.4.4 Vapor Pressure 59 2.4.5 Henry s Law Constant 60 2.5 Reactions and Equilibrium 61 2.5.1 Acid base Chemistry 61 2.5.2 Oxidation Reduction Chemistry 66 2.6 Complexation 73 2.7 Equilibrium Sorption Phenomena 74 2.7.1 Sorption Surfaces 76 2.7.2 Organic Matter 81 2.7.3 Organic Sorbates 82 2.7.4 Partition Coefficients, Kd and Kp 84 2.7.5 Ion Exchange Phenomena for Ionic Pollutants 85 2.8 Transformation/Degradation Reactions 87 2.8.1 Abiotic Chemical Transformations/Degradations 87 2.8.2 Photochemical Transformation/Degradation Reactions 89 2.8.3 Nuclear 92 2.8.4 Biological 92 2.9 Summary 93 References 95 CHAPTER 3 QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CHEMISTRY TOWARD MODELING 97 3.1 Introduction 97 3.2 Calculation of the Free Metal Ion Concentration in Natural Waters 97 3.2.1 Calculating Chemical Equilibria 97 3.2.2 Equilibrium Applied to More Complex Speciation Problems 105 3.3 Methods for Determining Kd and Kp 119 3.4 Kinetics of the Sorption Process 124 3.5 Sorption Isotherms 125 3.5.1 A General Approach 125 3.6 Kinetics of Transformation Reactions 129 3.7 Putting It All Together: Where Chemistry Enters into the Modeling Effort 130 Case I: A Metal Pollutant 131 Case II: Hydrophobic Pollutants 131 References 141 PART III MODELING CHAPTER 4 AN OVERVIEW OF POLLUTANT FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELING 145 4.1 Modeling Approaches 145 4.1.1 Algebraic Solutions 145 4.1.2 Modeling Using Differential Equations 146 4.1.3 The General Approach for the Models Used in this Text 152 4.1.4 Numerical Methods of Analysis 152 4.2 The Quality of Modeling Results 154 4.3 What Do You Do with Your Modeling Results? 156 References 156 CHAPTER 5 FATE AND TRANSPORT CONCEPTS FOR LAKE SYSTEMS 157 Case Study: Lake Onondaga 157 5.1 Introduction 159 5.2 Types of lakes and lake-forming events 159 5.3 Input Sources 162 5.4 Stratification of Lake Systems 165 5.5 Important Factors in the Modeling of Lakes: Conceptual Model Development 168 5.5.1 Definitions of Terms: 168 5.5.2 Detention Times and Effective Mixing Volumes 169 5.5.3 Chemical Reactions 170 5.5.4 Sedimentation 170 5.6 Two Basic Mathematical Models for Lakes 173 5.6.1 Continuous (State) Model 173 5.6.2 Instantaneous (Pulse) Pollutant Input Model 176 5.7 Sensitivity Analysis 180 5.8 Limitations of Our Models 181 5.9 Remediation 181 References 186 CHAPTER 6 FATE AND TRANSPORT OF POLLUTANTS IN RIVERS AND STREAMS 187 Case Study: The Rhine River 187 6.1 Introduction 188 6.2 Examples of Rivers and Volumetric Flows of Water 188 6.3 Input Sources 189 6.4 Important Factors in the Modeling of Streams: Conceptualization of Terms 190 6.4.1 Definition of Terms 190 6.4.2 The Stream Channel 191 6.4.3 Mixing and Dispersion in Rivers 191 6.4.4 Removal Mechanisms 193 6.5 Mathematical Development of Simple Transport Models 197 6.5.1 Solution of the Differential Equation for the Instantaneous Input (Pulse) 197 6.5.2 Solution of the Differential Equation for the Step Input 200 6.6 Sensitivity Analysis 204 6.7 Limitations of Our Models 204 6.8 Remediation of Polluted Streams Systems 205 References 209 CHAPTER 7 DISSOLVED OXYGEN SAG CURVES IN STREAMS: THE STREETER PHELPS EQUATION 211 Case Study: Any Stream, Anywhere in the World 211 7.1 Introduction 212 7.2 Basic Input Sources (Wastewater Flow Rates and BOD Levels) 216 7.3 Mathematical Development of Model 218 7.4 Sensitivity Analysis 224 7.5 Limitations of Our Model 225 7.6 Remediation 225 References 229 CHAPTER 8 FATE AND TRANSPORT CONCEPTS FOR GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS 231 Case Study: The Test Area North Deep Well Injection Site at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) 231 8.1 Introduction 232 8.2 Input Sources 234 8.3 Monitoring Wells 235 8.3.1 Cable Tool Percussion Method 236 8.3.2 Direct Rotary Drill Method 237 8.3.3 Earth Augers 240 8.3.4 Well Casing, Grouting, and Sealing the Well Casing 240 8.3.5 Well Development 242 8.3.6 But How good is our well? 244 8.4 Chemistry Experiments Used to Support Modeling Efforts 244 8.4.1 Kd and Kp Values 246 8.4.2 Relationship Between K and the Groundwater Fate and Transport Equation 246 8.4.3 Column Studies for Evaluating Pollutant Transport in Subsurface Media 247 8.5 Direction of Water Flow (the Three-Point Problem) 251 8.6 Physical Parameters Important in Pollutant Fate and Transport 254 8.6.1 Sources of Dispersion in Geological Media 255 8.6.2 A Case Study: The INEEL Water and Tracer Infiltration Experiment 256 8.6.3 Towards a Universal Estimate Technique for Dispersion 263 8.7 Mathematical Models 265 8.8 Sensitivity Analysis 270 8.9 Limitations of Our Models 270 8.10 Remediation 270 References 275 CHAPTER 9 FATE AND TRANSPORT CONCEPTS IN ATMOSPHERIC SYSTEMS 277 Case Study: The Accident at Union Carbide Bhopal 277 9.1 Introduction 278 9.2 Input Sources 278 9.3 Important Factors in the Modeling of Atmospheric Pollution: Conceptual Model Development 279 9.3.1 One- Versus Two- Versus Three-Dimensional Models 279 9.3.2 Mixing and Dispersion in Atmospheric Systems 279 9.4 Mathematical Development of Model 284 9.4.1 Step Input (Plume Model) of Pollutant 284 9.4.2 Instantaneous Input (Pulse or Puff Model) of Pollution 289 9.5 Sensitivity Analysis 296 9.6 Limitations of our model 296 9.7 Remediation 296 References 298 PART IV RISK ASSESSMENT CHAPTER 10 RISK AND THE CALCULATION OF HEALTH RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS 303 10.1 The Concept of Risk 304 10.2 Dose Rates from Various Sources 306 10.2.1 Ingestion of Pollutants from Drinking Water 312 10.2.2 Ingestion of Water While Swimming 314 10.2.3 Dermal Contact with Pollutants in Water While Swimming 314 10.2.4 Ingestion of Pollutants in Soil 315 10.2.5 Intake from Dermal Contact with Pollutants in Soil 315 10.2.6 Inhalation of Airborne (Vapor Phase) Pollutants 316 10.2.7 Ingestion of Contaminated Fish and Shellfish 317 10.2.8 Ingestion of Contaminated Fruits and Vegetables 318 10.2.9 Ingestion of Contaminated Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Products 318 10.3 Health Risk Calculations for Carcinogens 319 10.4 Health Risk Calculations for Noncarcinogens 323 10.5 Bioconcentration Calculations 325 10.6 Putting It All Together: Margin of Error (Uncertainty) of the Entire Estimation Process 327 References 332 PART V ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS 337 11.1 Environmental Movements in the United States 337 11.2 The History of the Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA): Administrators 340 11.2.1 Timeline of the U.S. Environmental Movement 337 11.3 Major U.S. Environmental Laws 344 11.3.1 The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 346 11.3.2 The Air Quality Act, The Clean Air Act, and Amendments 347 11.3.3 The National Environmental Policy Act 351 11.3.4 The Solid Waste Disposal Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Amendments 354 11.3.5 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) 357 11.3.6 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Water Restoration Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and Amendments 357 11.3.7 The Toxic Substances Control Act 360 11.3.8 The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 361 11.3.9 The Oil Pollution Act 364 11.3.10 The Pollution Prevention Act 364 11.3.11 The Endangered Species Act of 1966 and Amendments 365 11.3.12 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972 365 11.4 EPA s Record 366 11.5 International Agreements/Treaties Involving the United States 374 11.5.1 U.S. Canada Environmental Agreements 374 11.5.2 Multinational Agreements 375 11.6 Environmental Policy in the European Union 378 11.6.1 Brief Introduction to the European Union 378 11.6.2 History of Environmental Policy 378 11.6.3 Economy and the Environment 380 11.6.4 The Union Versus Member States 381 11.6.5 The Making of Environmental Policy 382 11.6.6 Existing Environmental Policy 384 11.6.7 Implementation of Environmental Policy 388 11.6.8 Public and the Environment 390 11.6.9 The Future of Environmental Policy 391 References 393 PART VI POLLUTANT CASE STUDIES CHAPTER 12 CASE STUDIES OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS 399 12.1 Mercury 399 12.1.1 Sources 399 12.1.2 Production/Use 400 12.1.3 Fate and Environmental Distribution 400 12.1.4 Health Effects 401 12.2 Lead 402 12.2.1 Sources 402 12.2.2 Production/Use 402 12.2.3 Fate 403 12.2.4 Environmental Distribution 403 12.2.5 Health Effects 404 12.3 PCBs 406 12.3.1 Sources 406 12.3.2 Production/Use 406 12.3.3 Fate and Environmental Distribution 408 12.3.4 Health Effects 409 12.4 DDT 409 12.4.1 Sources 409 12.4.2 Production/Use 410 12.4.3 Fate 410 12.4.4 Environmental Distribution 410 12.4.5 Health Effects 410 12.5 Endocrine Disruptors 412 12.5.1 Sources 412 12.5.2 Uses and Points of Contact 412 12.5.3 Fate and Environmental Distribution 413 12.5.4 Health Effects 414 References 416 PART VII SUPPORTING LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS CHAPTER 13 EXPERIMENTS 421 13.1 The Determination of Alkalinity in Water Samples 421 13.2 Total Suspended and Dissolved Solids in Water Samples 424 13.3 The Determination of Hardness in a Water Sample 426 13.4 The Determination of Dissolved Oxygen in Water Using the Winkler Method (Iodiometric Titration Method) 429 13.5 The Determination of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Sewage Influent: BOD5 and/or BOD20 434 13.6 Determination of a Clay Water Distribution Coefficient for Copper 438 13.7 The Measurement of Dispersion in a Simulated Lake System 442 13.8 The Measurement of Dispersion in a Simulated River System 446 13.9 The Measurement of Dispersion and Sorption in a Simulated Groundwater System 448 13.10 A Field Study of a Stream 453 APPENDIX I GLOSSARY OF IRIS TERMS 455 APPENDIX II LIST OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS AND MCLS 461 APPENDIX III LIST OF CONTAMINANTS AND THEIR MCLS 463 APPENDIX IV PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS 475 INDEX 477

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780471651284
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 504
  • ID: 9780471651284
  • weight: 884
  • ISBN10: 0471651281

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