A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments

A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments

By: Stephen Wilhoit (author)Paperback

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Description

A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Argumentsprepares the reader to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.

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Contents

Contents Preface Acknowledgments Ch. 1 What Makes an Academic Argument "Academic"? What "Argument" Means in an Academic Setting Context Is Everything: Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of Academic Arguments Elements of the Rhetorical Situation How the Elements of the Rhetorical Situation Are Interconnected Reading: "Generation Q," by Thomas L. Friedman Qualities of Effective Academic Arguments Effective Academic Arguments Are Clear and Precise Effective Academic Arguments Are Well Supported Effective Academic Arguments Are Properly Qualified Effective Academic Arguments Are Placed in Context Effective Academic Arguments Employ an Appropriate Voice and Tone Effective Academic Arguments Follow Established Conventions Effective Academic Arguments Are Sensitive to Audience Needs Ch.2 The Elements of Persuasive Academic Arguments What Makes Academic Arguments Persuasive? Logos: The Role of Logic and Reason in Academic Arguments Claims Grounds Explanations Qualifications Rebuttals Logos in Action: A Sample Argument Sample Reading: Letter to the Editor Common Logos-related Fallacies Pathos: The Role of Emotion in Academic Arguments Pathos in Action: A Sample Essay Reading: "Perils and Promise: Destroy an Embryo, Waste a Life," by Christopher H. Smith How Pathos Can Help You Develop Content and Choose Language How Pathos Can Help You Create a Bond with Your Audience How Pathos Can Help You Communicate Your Own Emotional Investment in Your Argument Common Pathos-related Fallacies Ethos: The Role of the Writer's Authority and Credibility in Academic Arguments Establishing Ethos through Your Knowledge of the Topic Establishing Ethos through Accurate Writing Establishing Ethos by Being Open Minded, Honest, and Fair Establishing Ethos by Following Conventions Ethos in Action: A Sample Reading Reading: "Embryo Ethics: The Moral Logic of Stem-cell Research," by Michael J. Sandel Common Ethos-related Fallacies The Interrelatedness of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos Ch. 3 Reading Academic Arguments Critically A Process Approach to Critical Reading Pre-reading Strategies Reading: "Rank Colleges, but Rank Them Right," by David Leonhardt Comprehending Arguments Sample Annotated Text Analyzing Arguments Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Author Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Topic Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Audience Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Purpose Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Occasion Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Claims Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Structure Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Language Evaluating Arguments Evaluating the Quality of an Argument's Claims Evaluating the Quality of an Argument's Grounds Evaluating the Quality of an Argument's Explanations Evaluating the Quality of an Argument's Rebuttals Ch.4 The Role of Claims in Academic Arguments What Claims Are and What They Aren't Claims Are Debatable Claims Are Substantive Claims Are Sincere Stating Claims Effectively Effective Claims Are Precise Effective Claims Are Clear Effective Claims Are Properly Qualified Effective Claims Are Affirmative The Structure of Claims in Academic Arguments The Process of Crafting Claims Ch. 5 Supporting Claims The Role of Reasons in Supporting Arguments The Relationship between Claims and Reasons Choosing Which Reasons to Include in an Argument Choosing How Many Reasons to Include in an Argument Organizing Reasons in Support of a Thesis Note: Using First-person Point of View When Stating Reasons The Role of Evidence in Supporting Arguments Types of Evidence Commonly Employed in Academic Writing What Makes Evidence Persuasive The Role of Beliefs and Values in Supporting Arguments Stating Beliefs and Values in Support of an Argument Leaving Beliefs and Values Unstated in an Argument Ch. 6 Explaining Your Argument Connecting Claims, Reasons, and Evidence Case in Point: The TV Courtroom Drama Explaining Your Argument: An Exercise What to Explain and How to Explain It What Typically Needs Explanation Explaining Arguments: An Example Reading: "Student Cheating," by Bill Puka Ch. 7 Qualifying Claims and Rebutting Opposition in Academic Arguments Why You Need to Qualify Your Claims in Academic Arguments Qualified Claims Tend to Be More Honest Than Unqualified Claims Qualified Claims Are Easier to Support Than Are Unqualified Claims Qualified Claims Are More Difficult to Refute Than Are Unqualified Claims Qualified Claims Conform to the Conventions of Academic Writing Language Commonly Used to Qualify Claims Addressing Opposition in Academic Arguments Why It Is Important to Research and Address Opposing Views in Academic Arguments Anticipating Opposition Rebutting Opposition Ch. 8 Working with Sources in Academic Arguments Roles Sources Commonly Play in Academic Arguments Provide Background Information Support Claims Present Opposing Views Improve Ethos Techniques Commonly Used to Integrate Source Material into Academic Arguments Reading: "Regular Exercise and Weight Management: Myths and Reality," Steven Jonas Summarizing Material Qualities of a Good Summary Writing a Summary Paraphrasing Material When and Why to Paraphrase Material Qualities of a Good Paraphrase How to Paraphrase Material Quoting Material When and Why to Quote Material How to Quote Material Avoiding Plagiarism Common Forms of Plagiarism in Academic Writing Avoiding Problems with Plagiarism Ch. 9 Working with the Visual Elements of Academic Arguments Why It's Important to Understand the Visual Elements of Arguments How Visuals Function in Academic Arguments Using Visuals to Make an Argument Using Visuals to Support an Argument Using Visuals to Make an Argument Easier to Understand Reading Visual Texts Critically Reading Pictures and Drawings Reading Diagrams, Tables, and Graphs Working with Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams Qualities of Effective Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams Working with Tables Qualities of Effective Tables Working with Graphs Common Types of Graphs Qualities of Effective Graphs Working with Typographical Features of a Text Effective Use of Typographical Features Ch. 10 Writing Arguments: An Overview Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of an Assignment Working with Assigned Topics Working with Open Topics Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A General Heuristic Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A Stasis-based Heuristic Narrowing and Focusing a Topic Investigating the Topic Investigating a Topic through Reflection Investigating a Topic through Research Understanding the Role of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing Choosing Among Possible Positions Common Types of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing Crafting a Thesis Statement: A Process Approach Thesis Placement Organizing an Argument Opening and Closing Sections in Academic Arguments Organizing the Body of Academic Arguments Organizing Academic Arguments around Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences Drafting an Argument Composing Strategies: Three Common Models BOX: Writing Habit Inventory Overcoming Problems that Commonly Arise When Drafting Academic Arguments Revising an Argument Revising Content Revising Structure Revising Mechanics and Style Revising Quoted and Paraphrased Material Revising Documentation Ch. 11 Writing Definition Arguments What Are Definition Arguments? Types of Definition Arguments Stipulative Definitions Categorical Definitions Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument A Model Process for Writing Stipulative Definition Arguments Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument Sample Student Essay: Stipulative Definition Argument "What Is Global Warming," by Cassandra Leigh Stemsky Writing a Categorical Definition Argument A Model Process for Writing Categorical Definition Arguments Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Categorical Definition Argument Sample Student Essay: Categorical Definition Argument "Is Cheerleading a Sport? It Depends," by Mike Allen Additional Readings "What Is Spirituality?" by Bruce W. Speck "Why Spirituality Deserves a Central Place in Liberal Education," by Alexander W. Astin Ch. 12 Writing Causal Arguments What Are Causal Arguments? Forms of Arguments Focusing on Causes Forms of Arguments Focusing on Effects Types of Causes Immediate and Remote Causes Necessary and Sufficient Causes Writing a Causal Argument Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Causal Argument Sample Student Essay: Causal Argument "What Killed Off the Dinosaurs?" by Carlos Mendez Chapter Summary Additional Readings "The Causes and Nature of Bullying and Social Exclusion in Schools," by Maria el Mar Badia Martin "Sugar and Spice and Puppy Dogs' Tails: The Psychodynamics of Bullying," by Ann Ruth Turkel Ch. 13 Writing Proposal Arguments What Are Proposal Arguments? Key Elements of a Proposal Argument Establishing the Problem Identifying Possible Solutions Evaluating Solutions Establishing the Best Solution Writing a Proposal Argument A Model Process for Writing Proposal Arguments Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Proposal Argument Sample Student Essay: Proposal Argument "Improving Student Retention at Mountain University," by Janelle Jackson Additional Readings "How Should We Talk about Student Drinking-and What Should We Do about It?" by Alan David Berkowitz "Alcohol Prohibition versus Moderation," by Franklin B. Drohn and Brandon M. Pyc Ch. 14 Writing Evaluation Arguments What Are Evaluation Arguments? Types of Evaluation Arguments Aesthetic Evaluations Functional Evaluations Moral Evaluations Mixed Evaluations Elements of an Evaluation Argument Topic or Subject Criteria Standards Consistent Use of Criteria and Standards Writing an Evaluation Argument A Model Process for Writing Evaluation Arguments Common Errors to Avoid When Writing an Evaluation Argument Sample Student Essay: Evaluation Argument "Keys to an Effective Shoe Ad," by Lilly Boone Additional Readings "The Price of Free Speech: Campus Hate Speech Codes," by Gerald Uelmen "Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems," by Cass R. Sunstein Appendix 1: Revision Checklists Stipulative Definition Argument Categorical Definition Argument Causal Argument Proposal Argument Evaluation Argument Appendix 2: Annotated Bibliographies Annotated Bibliographies Definition and Purpose Qualities of a Good Annotated Bibliography Writing an Annotated Bibliography Sample Annotated Bibliography Index.

Product Details

  • publication date: 17/12/2008
  • ISBN13: 9780205568611
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9780205568611
  • weight: 367
  • ISBN10: 0205568610

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