A Cognitive Approach to the Semantics of the German Passive (Studies in Linguistics & Semiotics S. No. 17)
By: Carlee Arnett (author)Hardback
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Hopper & Thompson's (1980) seminal article on transitivity brought forth renewed interest in the passive and other correlates of transitivity. Langacker (1982) and others working with the Cognitive Grammar (CG) framework argue that the passive voice is an independent construction and that it is not a reorganization of the active voice. Language specific problems for the German passive include the use of the dative case to mark certain passive participants, passives formed from verbs and preposition combinations and impersonal passives. This study provides a semantic analysis of all the types of passive constructions found in German and shows that these construction types are related. A corpus of written data is used and the focus is on radial categories of meaning in Modern German.
Dr. Carlee Arnett completed her B.A. at Mt. Holyoke College, her M.A. at the University of California/Davis and her PhD at the University of Michigan in 1995. Her main research interests are semantics, history of the German language and second language acquisition. She is currently an Assistant Professor in the German Department at the University of California/Davis.
Preface i; Acknowledgements xi; Chapter 1: Introduction and Literature Review 1; Literature Review 5; Traditional Accounts 6; Post-1957 Descriptive Accounts 9; Generative Theories 10; Transformational Grammar (TG) 10; Relational Grammar (RG) 12; Government-Binding Theory (GB) 15; Principles and Parameters 16; Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 17; Syntactic versus lexical passive 18; Summary of generative approaches 19; Functional Approaches 19; Givon 19; Role and Reference Grammar 21; Semantic Accounts 22; Case Grammar 23; Hopper & Thompson 25; Summary 26; Chapter 2: Theory and Methodology 29; Global Assumptions of Cognitive Grammar (CG) 29; Conception and Construal in CG 31; Prototypes in CG 33; Fundamental Concept and Terms of CG 34; Semantic Structure 34; Profile/Base 34; Trajector/Landmark 35; Things and Relations 36; Nouns and Verbs 37; Syntagmatic Combination and Profile Determinants 37; Cognitive Models of Transitivity 38; Hopper & Thompson (1980) and Rice (1987) 39; Langacker's (1982) analysis of the English Passive 40; Perfect Participle 41; PERF 1 41; PERF 2 41; PERF 3 42; PERF 4 44; Passive BE 44; By-phrases 46; Summary of Langacker (1982) 47; What is a Passive? 48; Langacker's Classification Scheme and German 48; PERF 1 49; PERF 2 49; PERF 3 51; Werden as an Independent Verb and Passive Auxiliary 52; Old High German (OHG) 54; Middle High German (MHG) 57; Early New High German (ENHG) 58; Summary 59; Methodology 59; Text types, novels and newspapers 60; Data Collection 61; Summary 63; Chapter 3: The Passive Prototype 77; Semantic Characteristics of the Passive 78; Transitive Event Structure: action chain 79; Point of View: stage model 79; Role archetypes 80; Action Chain: unmarked coding of transitive events 81; Action Chain: subject/topic 83; Action Chain: marked coding of transitive events 84; Passive Prototype 85; Passive Prototype: Shibatani 85; New and Improved Passive Prototype 87; Prototypical Personal Passive: nominative subject 88; Non-prototypical personal passive: nominative subject 91; Metaphorical extensions 91; Quantified Nouns as Subjects 92; Places as Subjects 92; Complement Clauses as Participants 93; Ellipsis of Passive Subjects 94; Incorporated Subjects 95; Passive Subjects 96; Summary 99; Chapter 4: Non-Prototypical Passives 105; Prototypical Personal Passive: dative verbs 106; Impersonal Passives vs. Impersonal Constructions 106; Dative verbs 108; Prepositional Passives 112; Passives with Participants in the Nominative and Dative Case 116; Nominative Subject/Dative Participant 118; Dative Object as Topic 119; Passive Subjects Revisited 121; Subject vs. Topic 123; Summary 125; Chapter 5: Encoding the Agent 131; Uses of the agented passive 131; The Agent: von vs. durch 132; Langacker's (1982) analysis of English 'by' 133; Von in Active Clauses 134; Von in Passive Clauses 135; Volitional Agents 136; Non-animate Causes 138; Durch in Active Clauses 140; Durch in Passive Clauses 141; Durch + Intermediary 142; Durch + Animate Agent 143; Durch + Inanimate Agents 144; The Preposition mit 146; Mit in Active Clauses 147; Mit in Passive Clauses 148; Summary 151; Chapter 6: Impersonal Passives 161; Literature Review 162; Traditional Accounts 163; Relational Grammar (RG) 163; Morecroft (1985) 164; Government-Binding Theory (GB) 165; Setting-Subject Construction 165; Setting/Participant Distinction 166; Setting/Participant Distinction in German 167; Presentational Frame 167; Distinction between Impersonal Constructions and Impersonal Passives 169; Impersonal Passives 171; Spatial, Temporal and Mental Settings 172; Impersonal Passive Constructions 174; Event Structure of German Impersonal Passives 174; Profile/base Organization of Impersonal Passives 175; Agents in the Impersonal Passive 176; Transitivity and Volitionality 177; Markers of Volitionality 177; Animacy and Volitionality 179; Non-volitional Processes 180; Weather Verbs 181; Commands 181; Impersonal Passive Commands-transitive verbs 182; Impersonal Commands-intransitive verbs 182; Impersonal Commands-reflexive verbs 183; Summary 184; Chapter 7: Conclusion 191; Passive Morphology is Meaningful 191; Transitivity 193; Prototypical Passive Subject 195; Additional Support for Prototype Organization in Language 196; Bibliography 199; Index 207
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