A Comparative Study of Social and Religious Movements in Norway 1780s-1905 (Scandinavian Studies S. v. 7)
By: Inger Furseth (author)Hardback
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This study includes three social movements: the Lofthus revolt, the Thrane movement and the early labour movement; and two religious movements: the Hauge movement and Norwegian Methodism. The analysis examines how they mobilized resources to reach their goals, the external and internal factors that influenced their degrees of success and failure, and the interactions and exchanges between them. It uses a combination of resource mobilization theory and political process theory for analysis.
COMMENDATORY PREFACE vii FOREWORD xi INTRODUCTION 1 Part I: THEORY AND METHODS 1 STUDYING SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS 11 Existing Theories and Analyses in Norwegian Historical Research 12 Social and Religious Movement Theories in Sociology 26 2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS, METHODS AND DATA 36 Research Questions and Variables 36 Methods and Data 46 Part II: THE LOFTHUS REVOLT AND THE HAUGE MOVEMENT 3 THE HISTORY OF THE LOFTHUS REVOLT AND THE HAUGE MOVEMENT 65 The Lofthus Revolt: 1786-1787 65 The Hauge Movement: 1796-1830s 70 4 THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT 76 Political Opportunities 76 Church-State Relations 81 Pre-Industrial Economy 82 Social Structures 86 Summary 88 5 IDEOLOGY, GOALS, AND STRATEGIES 91 Lofthus' Ideas 92 Hauge's Ideology 95 Summary 103 6 BUILDING THE MOVEMENT: LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION 106 Lofthus as a Leader 106 Organizing the Peasant Protests 108 Hauge's Leadership 111 Developing an Organizational Base 116 Summary 124 7 THE SOCIAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE MOVEMENTS 126 The Lofthus Revolt - For and By Adult Men 126 Social Class Base and Urban/Rural Background 127 A Wide Age and Gender Structure in the Hauge Movement 131 Social Class and Urban/Rural Base 132 Regional Diffusion 135 Summary 137 8 RECRUITMENT AND SOCIALIZATION 138 Inclusive Recruitment and Lacking Socialization in the Lofthus Revolt 138 More Exclusive Recruitment and Intense Socialization in the Hauge Movement 140 Summary 146 9 REPRESSION AND CONFLICT 148 Governmental Reactions to the Lofthus Revolt 148 Religious and Governmental Reactions to the Hauge Movement 150 Summary 155 10 MOVEMENT OUTCOMES AND CONNECTIONS 156 The Failure and the Success of the Lofthus Revolt 156 The Success of the Hauge Movement 158 Indirect Connections between the Lofthus Revolt and the Hauge Movement? 160 11 SUMMARY 162 Part III: THE THRANE MOVEMENT AND NORWEGIAN METHODISM 12 THE HISTORY OF THE THRANE MOVEMENT AND NORWEGIAN METHODISM 169 The Thrane Movement 169 Norwegian Methodism 176 13 THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT 182 Political Opportunities 182 Culture and Religion 185 Early Industrialization 188 Social Class Structure 193 Summary 195 14 IDEOLOGY, GOALS, AND STRATEGIES 197 Thrane's Ideology 197 Methodist Ideology 204 Summary 211 15 BUILDING THE MOVEMENT: LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION 215 Thrane as a Leader 215 Developing an Organization 219 Petersen's Leadership 225 Establishing an Organization 228 Summary 235 16 THE SOCIAL COMPOSITION OF THE MOVEMENTS 237 The Thrane Movement - For and By Adult Men 237 Social Class and Urban/Rural Base 238 A Wider Age and Gender Structure among Methodists 248 Social Class and Urban/Rural Base 250 Summary 260 17 BUILDING COMMITMENT: RECRUITMENT AND SOCIALIZATION 262 Inclusive Recruitment and Poor Socialization in the Thrane Movement 262 More Exclusive Recruitment and Intense Socialization among the Methodists 268 Summary 274 18 OPPOSITION AND REPRESSION 276 Religious and Governmental Reactions to the Thrane Movement 276 Religious Reactions to Methodism 279 Summary 284 19 MOVEMENT OUTCOMES AND CONNECTIONS 286 The Failure and the Success of the Thrane Movement 286 The Success of Methodism 288 Indirect Connections between the Thrane Movement and Methodism? 292 20 SUMMARY 295 Part IV: THE EARLY LABOR MOVEMENT 21 THE HISTORY OF THE EARLY LABOR MOVEMENT 303 Strikes and Trade Unions: 1871-1874 304 The Labor Movement Gains Support and Recognition: 1880s-1905 305 22 THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT 309 Extended Political Opportunities 309 Cultural and Religious Life 312 Industrialization 314 Urbanization 317 Summary 318 23 IDEOLOGY, GOALS AND STRATEGIES 319 Summary 333 24 BUILDING THE MOVEMENT: LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION 336 Charismatic Leaders 336 Establishing an Organizational Base 340 Summary 355 25 BUILDING COMMITMENT: RECRUITMENT AND SOCIALIZATION 358 Exclusive and Inclusive Recruitment 358 Socialization 366 Summary 373 26 SUMMARY 374 Part V: CONCLUSION 27 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 379 Mobilization and Movement Outcome 382 Variety in Interactions 404 A Viable Approach? 407 APPENDIX 413 BIBLIOGRAPHY 419 INDEX 445 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1 Map of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 1850. 13 2 Map of Southern Norway, 1776. 67 3 Map of Southern Norway sketched by hand, 1775. 71 4 Map of Southern Norway, 1814. 171 5 Map of Southern Norway sketched by hand, 1750. 177 6 Map of Christiania, 1874. 307
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