Highlighting the key events, ideas, and individuals that have shaped modern Europe, this fresh and lively book provides a concise history of the continent from the Enlightenment to the present. Drawing on the enduring theme of revolution, David S. Mason explores the political, economic, and scientific causes and consequences of revolution; the development of human rights and democracy; and issues of European identity and integration. He deliberately avoids a detailed chronology of every country and time period by emphasizing the most crucial events that have shaped Europe. Fourteen focused chapters address such topical issues as the Enlightenment; the French Revolution and Napoleon; the Industrial Revolution; the theories and impact of Marx and Darwin; the revolutions of 1848, 1917, and 1989; the unifications of Germany and Italy; European imperialism; the two world wars; the Cold War; the evolution and expansion of the European Union; and current challenges confronting Europe. Any reader who wants a broad sweep of European history will find this book an engaging narrative, supplemented with maps, timelines, sidebars, photos, and a glossary.
David S. Mason is professor emeritus at Butler University.
List of Boxes, Illustrations, and Maps Preface and Acknowledgments Introduction: Revolutionary Europe Timeline of European History Chapter One: The Old Regime and the Enlightenment -The Old Regime -The Enlightenment -The Impact of the Enlightenment Chapter Two: The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789: The Revolution Begins -1789: The Revolution Begins -The Radical Republic and the Terror -Napoleon and Europe Chapter Three: The Industrial Revolution and the Birth of Capitalism -Causes of the Industrial Revolution -Socioeconomic Consequences of Industrialization -The Impact of the Industrial Revolution Chapter Four: 1848: The Peoples' Spring -Europe after 1815: Reaction -Liberalism and Nationalism in the Early Nineteenth Century -Precursors to 1848: The 1830 Revolution in France -The Revolutions of 1848 -Revolt Spreads through Europe -Repression and Reaction -Consequences and Legacy of 1848 Chapter Five: Marx, Marxism, and Socialism -Karl Marx -The Communist Manifesto -Marxist Theory -The Idea of Communism -The Legacy of Marxism Chapter Six: Darwinism and Social Darwinism -Charles Darwin -The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection -Darwinism and Religion -Social Darwinism -Social Darwinism and European History -The Influence of Darwinism Chapter Seven: The Unifications of Italy and Germany -Nationalism and the Nation-State -Prelude to Unification: The Crimean War -Mazzini, Cavour, and the Unification of Italy -Bismarck and the Unification of Germany -The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary -Implications of Nationalism and Unification Chapter Eight: The Age of Imperialism and the Scramble for Africa -European Expansionism before the Nineteenth Century -The Motivations for Imperialism -The Scramble for Africa -The Colonization of Asia -Patterns of Colonial Rule -The Legacy and Consequences of European Imperialism Chapter Nine: World War I -Europe on the Eve of War -The Tinderbox: Nationalism in the Balkans -The Spark: The Assassination -The Escalation -The War -Versailles, the Peace Settlements, and the League of Nations -Consequences of the War Chapter Ten: The Russian Revolution and Communism -Tsarist Russia -Hints of Change and Reform -1905: Prelude to Revolution -Marxism and Leninism -World War I and the Two Revolutions -Civil War, NEP, and Consolidation -Stalin and Totalitarianism -The Legacy and Meaning of the Russian Revolution Chapter Eleven: World War II and the Holocaust -Europe between the World Wars -The Rise of Militarism and Fascism -Hitler's Aggression -The War -The Holocaust -The Consequences of World War II Chapter Twelve: Europe Divided, the Cold War, and Decolonization -The Division of Europe -The Onset of the Cold War -Decolonization -Postwar Western Europe -Eastern Europe after the War -Conclusions: From Cold War to Perestroika Chapter Thirteen: 1989: The Collapse of Communism and the End of the Cold War -Before 1989: Soviet Hegemony and the Brezhnev Doctrine -Gorbachev and Perestroika -The Revolutions of 1989 -The Disintegration of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia -Transition from Communism to Market Democracy -Conclusions: The Impact of 1989 Chapter Fourteen: The European Union: Europe United and Free? -Origins of the Common Market -From Common Market to EU -Expansion to Eastern Europe -The European Superpower? -Growing Pains -What is Europe? Conclusion: Europe in the Twenty-first Century -Russia's Place in Europe and the Crisis in Ukraine -Europe's Evolving Relationship with the United States Notes Glossary Suggestions for Additional Reading Index About the Author