This study investigates the impact of historical and political violence on war and post-war eras, and further diagnoses the unsolved crisis vis-?-vis other dynamic forces in Algerian society. It also fully examines Islamic trends and roles, as well as their changing patterns during the war of independence. It explores strategy and guerrilla tactics on the Algerian battlefield, and how conventional armed forces and special units are responding.
Acknowledgments xi; Preface xiii; Chronology of Events xix; Introduction 1vii; Chapter One: The FLN's historical legacy and its implications for post-war Algeria 1; 1. The zonal system and its impact on FLN cohesion 5; 2. The impact of the zonal system on collective leadership and its role in enhancing regionalism and commanders' power supremacy 12; 3. The impact of the Soummam Conference of 1956 on the aims and perspectives of the future campaign: an endorsement of, or a deviation from, the Algerian Revolution? 15; a. The Messalist challenge and beyond 34; b. The Communist challenge 37; c. Stages of urban offensive 39; 4. The Communist connection 52; Chapter Two; The Islamic factor during and after the war: 69; features, patterns and post-war FLN; 1. The Islamic factor during the Algerian War and beyond 69; 2. Islam and Jihad in Algerian context 76; 3. Features of Islamic revivalism and the political scene 86; 4. Leadership and collapse of the FLN 93; 5. The socio-economic failure of the FLN programme and the rise of the Islamic trend 97; 6. Liberals versus hard-liners 104; 7. Kasdi Merbah versus Chadli Bendjedid 106; Chapter Three; French counter-guerrilla strategy between deficiency and long-term efficiency 113; Part One; The French Colonial Heritage; 1. French counter-guerrilla strategy in colonial Algeria: between theory and practice 113; 2. The main obstacles to French counter-insurgency policy 120; a. French military tactics and failure to copy those of the FLN 121; b. French reliance on FLN dissident forces and on the concept of the counter-insurgency programme 123; c. French misperceptions and the limits of La Guerre Revolutionnaire 125; d. The political instability of governments in France and Algeria and the involvement of the French army in politics 126; e. Ethnic and political heterogeneity of the French army and its morale in action 129; Chapter Four; The untold story of French long-term strategy in Algeria and beyond 135; Part Two: The French Colonial Heritage; 1. French long-term strategy and its efficiency 135; 2. The relevance of domino theory to North Africa 140; 3. The French policy at work 142; 4. EMG versus the GPRA 152; 5. Causes of desertion 153; 6. The significance of 'Force Locale' and 'Force de L'Ordre' in de Gaulle's long-term strategy 156; 7. Means of entry into post-war institutions for Algerian collaborators with the French 158; 8. Parallels between military attitudes of the colonial French and the post-war Algerians 161; 9. Vocabulary and forms of propaganda 161; 10. Violence and repression 163; 11. Institutional censorship and disinformation 165; Chapter Five; The rise and fall of the National Liberation Front in Algeria: 1962-92 171; 1. The National Liberation Front in history and its various policies 171; 2. The FLN under Ben Bella and Boumedienne 173; 3. The FLN under Chadli's rule 181; 4. The last FLN attempt and its fall 190; Chapter Six; The National Liberation Front versus the Islamic Salvation Front 197; 1. Historical legacy of the Algerian Islamic trend and its revival 197; 2. The FIS Party structure 206; 3. The FIS ideology 208; 4. The economic policy of the FIS: strengths and weaknesses 213; 5. The last FLN temptation and the FIS challenge 216; 5. The impact of political violence and the state of the economy after the coup 358; 6. Dialogue between attempts and failures 368; 7. National and local elections in 1997 and their impact on the political scene 371; Chapter Nine; The Algerian army in politics: eradicators versus conciliators 399; 1. Profile of the Algerian army in politics 399; 2. Army influence on the presidency 410; 3. The remarkable resilience of army power 412; 4. Counter-insurgency between eradication and imperfection 418; Chapter Ten; The international dimension of the Algerian crisis 457; 1. The regional dimension of the Algerian crisis 457; 2. The Arab and the Eastern link? 459; 3. Algeria and France 474; 4. External advocates of dialogue: the United States and the European Union 485; Conclusion 519; Appendices 523; Figures 1-16 524; Governments and cabinets since the war of independence 540; Biography of main politicians since the war of independence 573; General Bibliography 609; Index 657