A Contemporary History of Exclusion: The Roma Issue in Hungary from 1945 to 2015
By: Balazs Majtenyi (author)Hardback
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This study presents the changing situation of the Roma in the 2nd half of the 20th century. It examines the effects of the policies of the Hungarian state towards minorities by analyzing legal regulations, policy documents, archival sources and sociological surveys. The authors repudiate common stereotypes such as criminality, parasitism, unrootedness and alike. Richly illustrated with photos and other personal sources, A Contemporary History of Exclusion offers theoretical background to one of the most burning issues in east Europe. In the first phase (1945-61), the authors show the efforts of forced assimilation by the communist state. The second phase (1961-89) began with the party resolution denying nationality status to the Roma. The prevailing thought was that Gypsy culture was a culture of poverty that must be eliminated. Forced assimilation through labor activities continued. The Roma adapted to new conditions while keeping their distinct identity. In the 1970s Roma intellectuals began an emancipatory movement, and its legacy can still be felt.
Although the third phase (1989-2010) brought about some freedoms and rights for the Roma - with large sums spent on various Roma-related programs. Despite these efforts, the situation on the ground did not improve. Segregation and marginalization continues, and is rampant. The authors powerfully conclude: while the Roma have become part of the political community, they are still quite separate from national society.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS Balazs Majtenyi is associate professor at Eotvos Lorand University (Budapest), Faculty of Social Studies, head of the Department for European Studies; senior research fellow at the Institute for Legal Studies at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Social Sciences. Gyorgy Majtenyi is professor of social and cultural history at Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger, Hungary
Acknowledgments Introduction: Contexts of Gypsy/Roma identity and history On the sources of Gypsy/Roma history Who (what) is (was) Hungarian or Gypsy/Roma? "Comrades, if you have a heart..." The History of the Gypsy Issue, 1945-1961 The construction and spread of the state socialist system Policy and Gypsies Modernization and Gypsy communities Disciplinary state The impossibility of self-organization Minority issue Discourses on social policy and equality "Life goes on..." The Hungarian Party-State and Assimilation Social policy and the Gypsies Wage work Housing Social system Education Scientific approaches Gypsy images The transformation of discourse Disciplinary power, disciplinary society Police and agents "Health supervisors" The national minority issue National movement The "ethnic interpretation" of history Roma Policy after the Regime Change Minority issue Prospects for multiculturalism Minority (self-)government? Divide at impera - The opportunities and impossibilities of self-organization Civic movement National minority culture - national culture Questions of Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunity Anti-discrimination Equal Opportunity Roma programs Education Employment Social policy and the Roma Aid Segregation Disciplinary society The transformation of discourses Research methods Panopticon: Roma Policy, 2010-2015 The Hungarian National Cooperation System The anti-egalitarian character of the system Changing minority legislation New Social Policy? Violence The shift Summary: Decades of Exclusion Bibliography List of Photographs Index
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- ID: 9789633861226
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