A First Course in Finite Elements

A First Course in Finite Elements

By: Jacob Fish (author), Ted Belytschko (author)Paperback

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Description

eloped from the authors, combined total of 50 years undergraduate and graduate teaching experience, this book presents the finite element method formulated as a general-purpose numerical procedure for solving engineering problems governed by partial differential equations. Focusing on the formulation and application of the finite element method through the integration of finite element theory, code development, and software application, the book is both introductory and self-contained, as well as being a hands-on experience for any student. This authoritative text on Finite Elements: Adopts a generic approach to the subject, and is not application specific In conjunction with a web-based chapter, it integrates code development, theory, and application in one book Provides an accompanying Web site that includes ABAQUS Student Edition, Matlab data and programs, and instructor resources Contains a comprehensive set of homework problems at the end of each chapter Produces a practical, meaningful course for both lecturers, planning a finite element module, and for students using the text in private study. Accompanied by a book companion website housing supplementary material that can be found at http://www.wileyeurope.com/college/Fish A First Course in Finite Elements is the ideal practical introductory course for junior and senior undergraduate students from a variety of science and engineering disciplines. The accompanying advanced topics at the end of each chapter also make it suitable for courses at graduate level, as well as for practitioners who need to attain or refresh their knowledge of finite elements through private study.

About Author

rong> Jacob Fish The Rosalind and John J. Redfern, Jr. '33 Chaired Professor in Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY Dr. Fish has 20 years of experience (both industry and academia) in the field of multi-scale computational engineering, which bridges the gap between modeling, simulation and design of products based on multi-scale principles. Dr. Fish has published over one hundred journal articles and book chapters. Two of his papers, one on development of multilevel solution techniques for large scale systems presented at the 1995 ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference and the second one, on fatigue crack growth in aging aircraft presented at the 1993 Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference have won the Best Paper Awards. Dr. Fish is a recipient of 2005 USACM Computational Structural Mechanics Award given "in recognition of outstanding and sustained contributions to the broad field of Computational Structural Mechanics". He is editor of the International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering. Ted Belytschko, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Ted Belytschko's main interests lie in the development of computational methods for engineering problems. He has developed explicit finite element methods that are widely used in crashworthiness analysis and virtual prototyping. He is also interested in engineering education, and he chaired the committee that developed the "Engineering First Program" at Northwestern. He obtained his B.S. and Ph.D. at Illinois Institute of Technology in 1965 and 1968, respectively. He has been at Northwestern since 1977 where he is currently Walter P. Murphy Professor and McCormick Distinguished Professor of Computational Mechanics. He is co-author of the book NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENTS FOR CONTINUA AND STRUCTURES with W.K.Liu and B. Moran (published by Wiley and in the third printing) and he has edited more than 10 other books. n January 2004, he was listed as the 4th most cited researcher in engineering. He is past Chairman of the Engineering Mechanics Division of the ASCE, the Applied Mechanics Division of ASME, past President of USACM, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering (elected in 1992) and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (elected in 2002). He is the editor of Numerical Methods in Engineering.

Contents

Preface xi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Applications of Finite elements 7 References 9 2 Direct Approach for Discrete Systems 11 2.1 Describing the Behavior of a Single Bar Element 11 2.2 Equations for a System 15 2.2.1 Equations for Assembly 18 2.2.2 Boundary Conditions and System Solution 20 2.3 Applications to Other Linear Systems 24 2.4 Two-Dimensional Truss Systems 27 2.5 Transformation Law 30 2.6 Three-Dimensional Truss Systems 35 References 36 Problems 37 3 Strong andWeak Forms for One-Dimensional Problems 41 3.1 The Strong Form in One-Dimensional Problems 42 3.1.1 The Strong Form for an Axially Loaded Elastic Bar 42 3.1.2 The Strong Form for Heat Conduction in One Dimension 44 3.1.3 Diffusion in One Dimension 46 3.2 TheWeak Form in One Dimension 47 3.3 Continuity 50 3.4 The Equivalence Between theWeak and Strong Forms 51 3.5 One-Dimensional Stress Analysis with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions 58 3.5.1 Strong Form for One-Dimensional Stress Analysis 58 3.5.2 Weak Form for One-Dimensional Stress Analysis 59 3.6 One-Dimensional Heat Conduction with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions 60 3.6.1 Strong Form for Heat Conduction in One Dimension with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions 60 3.6.2 Weak Form for Heat Conduction in One Dimension with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions 61 3.7 Two-Point Boundary Value Problem with Generalized Boundary Conditions 62 3.7.1 Strong Form for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems with Generalized Boundary Conditions 62 3.7.2 Weak Form for Two-Point Boundary Value Problems with Generalized Boundary Conditions 63 3.8 Advection Diffusion 64 3.8.1 Strong Form of Advection Diffusion Equation 65 3.8.2 Weak Form of Advection Diffusion Equation 66 3.9 Minimum Potential Energy 67 3.10 Integrability 71 References 72 Problems 72 4 Approximation of Trial Solutions,Weight Functions and Gauss Quadrature for One-Dimensional Problems 77 4.1 Two-Node Linear Element 79 4.2 Quadratic One-Dimensional Element 81 4.3 Direct Construction of Shape Functions in One Dimension 82 4.4 Approximation of theWeight Functions 84 4.5 Global Approximation and Continuity 84 4.6 Gauss Quadrature 85 Reference 90 Problems 90 5 Finite Element Formulation for One-Dimensional Problems 93 5.1 Development of Discrete Equation: Simple Case 93 5.2 Element Matrices for Two-Node Element 97 5.3 Application to Heat Conduction and Diffusion Problems 99 5.4 Development of Discrete Equations for Arbitrary Boundary Conditions 105 5.5 Two-Point Boundary Value Problem with Generalized Boundary Conditions 111 5.6 Convergence of the FEM 113 5.6.1 Convergence by Numerical Experiments 115 5.6.2 Convergence by Analysis 118 5.7 FEM for Advection Diffusion Equation 120 References 122 Problems 123 6 Strong andWeak Forms for Multidimensional Scalar Field Problems 131 6.1 Divergence Theorem and Green s Formula 133 6.2 Strong Form 139 6.3 Weak Form 142 6.4 The Equivalence BetweenWeak and Strong Forms 144 6.5 Generalization to Three-Dimensional Problems 145 6.6 Strong andWeak Forms of Scalar Steady-State Advection Diffusion in Two Dimensions 146 References 148 Problems 148 7 Approximations of Trial Solutions,Weight Functions and Gauss Quadrature for Multidimensional Problems 151 7.1 Completeness and Continuity 152 7.2 Three-Node Triangular Element 154 7.2.1 Global Approximation and Continuity 157 7.2.2 Higher Order Triangular Elements 159 7.2.3 Derivatives of Shape Functions for the Three-Node Triangular Element 160 7.3 Four-Node Rectangular Elements 161 7.4 Four-Node Quadrilateral Element 164 7.4.1 Continuity of Isoparametric Elements 166 7.4.2 Derivatives of Isoparametric Shape Functions 166 7.5 Higher Order Quadrilateral Elements 168 7.6 Triangular Coordinates 172 7.6.1 Linear Triangular Element 172 7.6.2 Isoparametric Triangular Elements 174 7.6.3 Cubic Element 175 7.6.4 Triangular Elements by Collapsing Quadrilateral Elements 176 7.7 Completeness of Isoparametric Elements 177 7.8 Gauss Quadrature in Two Dimensions 178 7.8.1 Integration Over Quadrilateral Elements 179 7.8.2 Integration Over Triangular Elements 180 7.9 Three-Dimensional Elements 181 7.9.1 Hexahedral Elements 181 7.9.2 Tetrahedral Elements 183 References 185 Problems 186 8 Finite Element Formulation for Multidimensional Scalar Field Problems 189 8.1 Finite Element Formulation for Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Problems 189 8.2 Verification and Validation 201 8.3 Advection Diffusion Equation 207 References 209 Problems 209 9 Finite Element Formulation for Vector Field Problems Linear Elasticity 215 9.1 Linear Elasticity 215 9.1.1 Kinematics 217 9.1.2 Stress and Traction 219 9.1.3 Equilibrium 220 9.1.4 Constitutive Equation 222 9.2 Strong andWeak Forms 223 9.3 Finite Element Discretization 225 9.4 Three-Node Triangular Element 228 9.4.1 Element Body Force Matrix 229 9.4.2 Boundary Force Matrix 230 9.5 Generalization of Boundary Conditions 231 9.6 Discussion 239 9.7 Linear Elasticity Equations in Three Dimensions 240 Problems 241 10 Finite Element Formulation for Beams 249 10.1 Governing Equations of the Beam 249 10.1.1 Kinematics of Beam 249 10.1.2 Stress Strain Law 252 10.1.3 Equilibrium 253 10.1.4 Boundary Conditions 254 10.2 Strong Form toWeak Form 255 10.2.1 Weak Form to Strong Form 257 10.3 Finite Element Discretization 258 10.3.1 Trial Solution andWeight Function Approximations 258 10.3.2 Discrete Equations 260 10.4 Theorem of Minimum Potential Energy 261 10.5 Remarks on Shell Elements 265 Reference 269 Problems 269 11 Commercial Finite Element Program ABAQUS Tutorials 275 11.1 Introduction 275 11.1.1 Steady-State Heat Flow Example 275 11.2 Preliminaries 275 11.3 Creating a Part 276 11.4 Creating a Material Definition 278 11.5 Defining and Assigning Section Properties 279 11.6 Assembling the Model 280 11.7 Configuring the Analysis 280 11.8 Applying a Boundary Condition and a Load to the Model 280 11.9 Meshing the Model 282 11.10 Creating and Submitting an Analysis Job 284 11.11 Viewing the Analysis Results 284 11.12 Solving the Problem Using Quadrilaterals 284 11.13 Refining the Mesh 285 11.13.1 Bending of a Short Cantilever Beam 287 11.14 Copying the Model 287 11.15 Modifying the Material Definition 287 11.16 Configuring the Analysis 287 11.17 Applying a Boundary Condition and a Load to the Model 288 11.18 Meshing the Model 289 11.19 Creating and Submitting an Analysis Job 290 11.20 Viewing the Analysis Results 290 11.20.1 Plate with a Hole in Tension 290 11.21 Creating a New Model 292 11.22 Creating a Part 292 11.23 Creating a Material Definition 293 11.24 Defining and Assigning Section Properties 294 11.25 Assembling the Model 295 11.26 Configuring the Analysis 295 11.27 Applying a Boundary Condition and a Load to the Model 295 11.28 Meshing the Model 297 11.29 Creating and Submitting an Analysis Job 298 11.30 Viewing the Analysis Results 299 11.31 Refining the Mesh 299 Appendix 303 A.1 Rotation of Coordinate System in Three Dimensions 303 A.2 Scalar Product Theorem 304 A.3 Taylor s Formula with Remainder and the Mean Value Theorem 304 A.4 Green s Theorem 305 A.5 Point Force (Source) 307 A.6 Static Condensation 308 A.7 Solution Methods 309 Direct Solvers 310 Iterative Solvers 310 Conditioning 311 References 312 Problem 312 Index 313

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470035801
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 336
  • ID: 9780470035801
  • weight: 598
  • ISBN10: 0470035803

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