A Guide to Cancer: Origins and Revelations unfolds the complex and fascinating topic of cancer in two ways: firstly, no specialist knowledge is assumed on the part of the reader, and secondly, despite the serious nature of the topics, the book aims to stimulate interest, provoke thought, and paradoxically entertain. It takes an array of complex topics and breaks them down in clear, concise terms, so that anyone with a basic knowledge of science can understand. The book is aimed at the general public as well as students of biological subjects, first and second year university students, and researchers in the nascent field of cancer genomics.
Melford John completed a first degree in Biochemistry at The University of London, followed by a PhD in Biochemistry, also at The University of London. He has been a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of the West Indies for 6 years, where he teaches biochemistry to medical students. His research is devoted to cancer genomics. Before coming to the University of the West Indies he spent 9 years at The European Bioinformatics Institute in Cambridge, UK as a database administrator in the Protein Data Bank in Europe group (PDBe).
Origins Charles Darwin Anaximander Titus Lucretius Carus Gregor Mendel About genes Decoding life Back to Mendel's work About chromosomes Mutations Alleles DNA repair What causes cancer? Inheriting cancer Retinoblastomas Hereditary cancer Familial cancers Sporadic cancers Why Cancer? Origins The pragmatic gene Is evolution for real? The driving force of cancer Mutations change proteins Architects of cancer Conservation of function Conservation of functional components Protein families Proteins that are enzymes Replacement mutations Frameshift mutations What drives cancer? Francis Crick, James Watson, and Rosalind Franklin War on Cancer Fighting over differences Out of Africa Mortality Vaccinations Cancer War, what is it good for? The Human Genome The Road less travelled Tumor Growth The hallmarks of cancer Differentiated cells Stem cells Malignancy One giant leap Tumor growth models Branching of tumor colonies Stem Cell resistance to radiotherapy Tumor Suppression The immune burden Is evolution bothered? Metastasis The immune response The inflammatory response The innate immune system Macrophages Neutrophils Natural killer cells Mast cells The complement system Pathogen recognition Targeting cancer cells Major histocompatibility complex proteins Innate immunosurveillance Adaptive Tumor Suppression The immune response Antigens Antibodies The problem with epitopes Strangers in the night Dendritic cells B-cells Cytotoxic T-cells Helper T-cells Acquired immune deficiency s yndrome and cancer Surgery Surgery in cancer treatment Surgical Methods Morcellators The Cancer Landscape Control of gene expression Promoters and enhancers Cancer by cell type Carcinomas World Health Organization (WHO) classification of cancer Breast cancer Hematopoietic cancers Chromosome defects and acute myelogenous leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Burkitt's lymphoma Other cancers Brain tumors Childhood cancers The Immortal Cell The Primordial urge Henrietta lacks' cells The Senescent cell Cell division Growth factors Cell signaling The cell cycle Inside hayflick's limit Cell death Radiotherapy Staging of cancers Radiation treatment Prostate cancer Lung cancer Breast cancer Driver Mutations Oncogenes An updated definition of an oncogene Driver pathways Growth factors Pathways that control cell division The Ras signaling pathway The Ras onocogene tumor suppressor genes An updated definition of a TSG The role of p53 Li-fraumeni syndrome Smoking and p53 Chemotherapy Cancer chaos Cell replacement Chemotherapy How chemotherapeutic drugs work Antioxidants Reactive oxygen species Ageing Antioxidants Antioxidants in supplements Antioxidants and heart disease Antioxidants and cancer Beta-carotene and lung cancer Vitamin E, selenium, and prostate cancer Avoiding antioxidants Why don't antioxidants protect against cancer? Ultaviolet rays and reactive oxygen species DNA damage Xeroderma pigmentosum Pigmentary traits Skin cancer prevention Vitamin D About vitamin D Obesity Vitamin D deficiency Forms of vitamin D Potency of D2 and D3 Vitamin D and lifestyle Synthesis of vitamin D Vitamin D and cancer risk How does vitamin D offer protection? Cell adhesion, invasion, and metastases Cell division and differentiation Apoptosis Recommended doses of vitamin D Vitamin D and sunscreens Viruses Communicable diseases Human immunodeficiency virus How pathogens drive cancer Helicobacter pylori Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Human papillomavirus Metastasis Metastatic beginnings Metastatic sites Cell adhesion The Metastatic cascade Invasion Detachment Anoikis Intravasation Extravasation Treatment Are macrophages double agents? Are neutrophils double agents? Revelations Complexity of cancer phenotype Diagnosing cancer Cancer types may also be identified by other techniques Screening Lifestyle changes Treatment Adapting to drug treatment Targeted therapy Anti-angiogenic drugs Immunotherapy Cytokine treatment Cancer vaccines Tumor cell vaccines Targeting breast cancer Adoptive cell transfer Therapeutic antibodies Checkpoint inhibitors Summary