This study of the City of London is something of a eulogy. Using the great events of England's history and its Kings as a backcloth, it describes how London - which became the inner enclave of the City of London - withstood constant attack from invaders, kings, governments and politicians, while jealously guarding its quite separate and unique identity; and why the City turned down every invitation and cajolement to take over the running of all London as it became the centre for creation of England's wealth and prestige. C Douglas Woodward has lived and worked in the City of London for most of his life. for 25 years he was a member of the City's governing body, the Court of Common Council, becoming its Chief Commoner. He founded the City Heritage Society in 1973 and remains its President. He was appointed CBE for services to the City of London in 1994. Previous books include Saving the City's Heritage, The Goings on in Guildhall and The Vanished Coaching Inns of the City of London.