A Panchromatic View of Galaxies

A Panchromatic View of Galaxies

By: Alessandro Boselli (author)Hardback

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Description

Describing how to investigate all kinds of galaxies through a multifrequency analysis, this text is divided into three different sections. The first describes the data currently available at different frequencies, from X-rays to UV, optical, infrared and radio millimetric and centimetric, while explaining their physical meaning. In the second section, the author explains how these data can be used to determine physical parameters and quantities, such as mass and temperature. The final section is devoted to describing how the derived quantities can be used in a multifrequency analysis to study such physical processes as the star formation cycle and constrain models of galaxy evolution. As a result, observers will be able to interpret galaxies and their structure.

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About Author

Alessandro Boselli is Head of the group Physics of Galaxies at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France. He got his academic degree in physics at the Universita di Milano (Italy) and his PhD in astrophysics at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon (France) under the supervision of J. Lequeux. He then worked at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (Germany). His research activity is focused on the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Contents

Preface XIII 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Galaxies 1 1.2 A Multifrequency Approach 4 1.3 The Purpose of this Book 10 Part One Emitting Sources and Radiative Processes in Galaxies 15 2 X-ray 17 2.1 Continuum 17 2.1.1 Discrete Sources 18 2.1.2 X-ray Emission in Active Galaxies 20 2.1.3 Hot Gas 21 3 UV-Optical-NIR 25 3.1 Continuum: Stellar Emission 26 3.2 Emission Lines 28 3.2.1 Hydrogen Lines 32 3.2.2 Metals 34 3.3 Absorption Lines 35 3.3.1 Hydrogen Lines 37 3.3.2 Other Elements 38 3.4 Molecular Lines 39 3.4.1 H2 Near-Infrared Emission Lines 39 3.4.2 H2 UV Absorption Lines 39 4 The Infrared 41 4.1 Continuum: Dust Emission 42 4.2 Emission Lines 44 4.2.1 PAHs 44 4.2.2 Cooling Lines in PDR 45 4.2.3 H2 Lines 47 4.2.4 Dust Absorption of Ly Scattered Photons 49 5 Millimeter and Centimeter Radio 51 5.1 Continuum 51 5.1.1 Free Free Emission 52 5.1.2 Synchrotron Emission 53 5.1.3 Dust Emission 53 5.2 Emission Lines 54 5.2.1 Molecular Lines 54 5.2.2 HI 55 5.3 Absorption Lines 57 5.3.1 HI 57 Part Two Derived Quantities 59 6 Properties of the Hot X-ray Emitting Gas 61 6.1 X-ray Luminosity 61 6.2 Gas Temperature 61 7 Dust Properties 63 7.1 The Far-IR Luminosity 63 7.2 Dust Mass and Temperature 65 8 Radio Properties 71 8.1 Determining the Contribution of the Different Radio Components 71 8.1.1 Synchrotron vs. Free Free Radio Emission in the Centimeter Domain 71 8.1.2 The Emission of the Cold Dust Component at - 1.5mm 72 8.2 The Radio Luminosity 74 9 The Spectral Energy Distribution 77 9.1 The Emission in the UV to Near-Infrared Spectral Domain 79 9.1.1 UV, Optical, and Near-IR Colors 81 9.1.2 Fitting SEDs with Population Synthesis Models 83 9.2 The Dust Emission in the Infrared Domain 84 9.2.1 Mid- and Far-Infrared Colors 86 9.3 The Thermal and Nonthermal Radio Emission 90 10 Spectral Features 91 10.1 Galaxy Characterization through Emission and Absorption Lines 91 10.1.1 Classification of the Nuclear Activity 92 10.1.2 Classification of Post-Starburst and Post-Star-Forming Galaxies 92 10.1.3 Line Diagnostics 95 10.2 Gas Metallicity from Emission Lines 101 10.3 Stellar Age and Metallicity from Absorption Lines 103 11 Gas Properties 107 11.1 Gas Density, Mass, and Temperature 107 11.1.1 The Atomic HI Mass 108 11.1.2 The Molecular H2 Mass 115 12 Dust Extinction 125 12.1 Galactic Extinction 126 12.1.1 Extinction Curve 127 12.2 Internal Attenuation 132 12.2.1 Attenuation of the Emission Lines 133 12.2.2 Attenuation of the Stellar Continuum 134 13 Star Formation Tracers 143 13.1 The Initial Mass Function 143 13.2 The Star Formation Rate 144 13.3 The Birthrate Parameter and the Specific Star Formation Rate 146 13.4 The Star Formation Efficiency and the Gas Consumption Time Scale 147 13.5 Hydrogen Emission Lines 147 13.6 UV Stellar Continuum 151 13.7 Infrared 152 13.7.1 Integrated Infrared Luminosity 152 13.7.2 Monochromatic Infrared Luminosities 153 13.8 Radio Continuum 153 13.9 Other Indicators 155 13.9.1 The X-ray Luminosity 155 13.9.2 Forbidden Lines 156 13.9.3 [CII] 157 13.9.4 Radio Recombination Lines 157 13.10 Population Synthesis Models 158 13.10.1 Dating a Star Formation Event 158 14 Light Profiles and Structural Parameters 161 14.1 The Surface Brightness Profile 161 14.1.1 Extended Radial Profiles 161 14.1.2 The Central Surface Brightness Profile of Early-Type Galaxies 162 14.1.3 The Vertical Light Profile of Late-Type Galaxies 166 14.2 Structural Parameters 166 14.2.1 Total Magnitudes, Effective Radii and Surface Brightnesses 166 14.2.2 Bulge to Disk Ratio 167 14.3 Morphological Parameters 168 14.3.1 Concentration Index 168 14.3.2 Asymmetry 168 14.3.3 Clumpiness 169 14.3.4 The Gini Coefficient G and the Second-Order Moment of the Brightest 20% of the Galaxy s Flux M20 169 15 Stellar and Dynamical Masses 171 15.1 Stellar Mass Determination Using Population Synthesis Models 171 15.2 Dynamical Mass 175 15.2.1 Rotation Curves and the Dark Matter Distribution 177 15.2.2 The Total Mass of Elliptical Galaxies from Kinematical Measurements 184 15.2.3 The Total Mass of Elliptical Galaxies from X-ray Measurements 185 15.2.4 The Mass of the Supermassive Black Hole 187 Part Three Constraining Galaxy Evolution 193 16 Statistical Tools 195 16.1 Galaxy Number Counts 195 16.1.1 Observed Number Counts 197 16.2 Luminosity Function 200 16.2.1 Parametrization of the Luminosity Function 203 16.2.2 Luminosity Distributions and Bivariate Luminosity Functions 204 16.2.3 The Observed Luminosity Functions 205 16.3 Luminosity Density 209 16.3.1 The Cosmic Star Formation History and Build Up of the Stellar Mass 211 17 Scaling Relations 215 17.1 Spectrophotometric Relations 216 17.1.1 The Color Magnitude and Color Color Relations 216 17.1.2 The Mass Metallicity Relation 218 17.1.3 The Mass Gas Relation 220 17.1.4 The Mass Star Formation Rate Relation 222 17.2 Structural Relations 223 17.2.1 The Surface Brightness Absolute Magnitude Relation 223 17.2.2 The Kormendy Relation 224 17.3 Kinematical Relations 224 17.3.1 The Tully Fisher Relation 225 17.3.2 The Faber Jackson Relation and the Fundamental Plane 228 17.3.3 The k-Space 230 17.4 Supermassive Black Hole Scaling Relations 231 18 Matter Cycle in Galaxies 235 18.1 The Star Formation Process 236 18.1.1 The Schmidt Law 236 18.2 Feedback 239 18.2.1 The Feedback of AGNs 239 18.2.2 The Feedback of Massive Stars 242 19 The Role of the Environment onGalaxy Evolution 245 19.1 Tracers of Different Environments 245 19.1.1 Detection of High-Density Regions 246 19.1.2 Other Quantitative Tracers of High-Density Environments 249 19.2 Measuring the Induced Perturbations 250 19.2.1 Other Tracers of Induced Perturbations 253 Appendix A Photometric Redshifts and K-Corrections 255 A.1 The Photometric Redshifts 255 A.1.1 UV-Optical-Near-Infrared Photo-z 255 A.1.2 Far Infrared-Radio Continuum Photo-z 258 A.2 The K-Correction 258 Appendix B Broad Band Photometry 263 B.1 Photometric Systems 263 Appendix C Physical and Astronomical Constants and Unit Conversions 267 References 269 Index 319

Product Details

  • publication date: 14/12/2011
  • ISBN13: 9783527409914
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 340
  • ID: 9783527409914
  • weight: 786
  • ISBN10: 3527409912

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