A Practical Guide to Construction Adjudication

A Practical Guide to Construction Adjudication

By: James Pickavance (author)Paperback

In Stock

£58.45 RRP £64.95  You save £6.50 (10%) With FREE Saver Delivery

Description

In the United Kingdom, adjudication is available as a right for parties to a construction contract, following the enactment of the Housing Grants Construction and Regeneration Act 1996. In general, within a comparatively short period of time, parties in dispute will have a decision from an adjudicator, which, except in limited circumstances, the courts will enforce. Adjudication has become the number one method of dispute resolution in the construction industry. The short timescale means that a party needs to know what to do, when to do it and be able to check that the other party and the adjudicator are following the right steps. A Practical Guide to Construction Adjudication gives parties the necessary information to achieve this. It provides a straightforward overview of the process and procedure of adjudication by reference to legislation and case law, augmented with practical guidance including suggestions on what to do or not to do, drafting tips and checklists. Separate chapters for Scotland and Northern Ireland identify and explain the differences in procedure and judicial interpretation between those jurisdictions and England and Wales, and further detailed explanations of the adjudication regimes in Australia, Ireland, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore are included. Each of the chapters on jurisdictions outside England and Wales has been written by senior experts in those jurisdictions to ensure the content is accurate and insightful. There are a range of helpful appendices including a bank of model form adjudication documents and tabulated detailed comparisons of the Scheme for Construction Contracts, the other major adjudication rules, the major adjudicator nominating bodies and the UK and international regimes. Readers will particularly appreciate the most comprehensive index of adjudication cases available, sorted into 260 subject headings providing immediate access to all the reported cases on any adjudication topic.

Create a review

About Author

James Pickavance is a partner in the construction and engineering practice of Eversheds LLP, specialising in dispute resolution. He has experience of all forms of dispute resolution, in particular contractual and statutory adjudication, domestic and international arbitration, expert determination, mediation and litigation, and advises public bodies, governments, international corporations and private clients on domestic and international, single or multi-jurisdictional disputes across a range of industry sectors in over 20 jurisdictions.

Contents

Foreword v Acknowledgements vii Part I The United Kingdom 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Overview 3 1.2 Background to statutory adjudication in the UK 4 1.3 Statutory adjudication regimes 5 1.4 Use of case lawin this part 6 2 Adjudication in a nutshell 9 3 Deciding to adjudicate 13 3.1 Overview 13 3.2 Do I have a claim? 14 3.3 Is it worth it? 15 3.3.1 In a nutshell 15 3.3.2 Amount in dispute 15 3.3.3 Likely recovery 16 3.3.4 Professional fees 16 3.3.5 Resources 17 3.3.6 Relationships 17 3.4 Is adjudication the right forum? 18 3.4.1 In a nutshell 18 3.4.2 Advantages 18 3.4.3 Disadvantages 21 3.4.4 Statistics 24 3.5 Other forms of rapid dispute resolution 24 3.5.1 In a nutshell 24 3.5.2 Early neutral evaluation 24 3.5.3 Expert determination 25 3.5.4 Mediation 26 3.5.5 Fast-track arbitration 27 3.5.6 Statutory demand or winding-up petition 29 3.5.7 Part 8 claim 29 3.5.8 Summary judgment 29 3.6 Adjudication on behalf of, or against, an insolvent party 30 3.6.1 In a nutshell 30 3.6.2 Why do it? 30 3.6.3 Trigger for insolvency 31 3.6.4 Liquidation 33 3.6.5 Voluntary or compulsory administration 37 3.6.6 Administrative receivership 38 3.6.7 A company voluntary arrangement (CVA) 38 3.6.8 Bankruptcy 39 3.6.9 Individual voluntary arrangement (IVA) 39 3.6.10 Problems enforcing the adjudicator s decision 39 3.7 Who to involve 40 3.7.1 In a nutshell 40 3.7.2 In-house lawyers 40 3.7.3 External lawyers 41 3.7.4 Claims consultants 41 3.7.5 Experts 41 3.7.6 Project team 42 3.8 Checklist: considering whether or not to adjudicate 42 4 Statutory adjudication 43 4.1 Overview 43 4.2 Old or new act 44 4.3 Existence and terms of a contract 44 4.3.1 In a nutshell 44 4.3.2 Contract formation and terms 45 4.3.3 Contract terminated 46 4.3.4 Void or voidable contract 46 4.3.5 Choice of terms 47 4.3.6 Incorporation of terms 47 4.4 Construction contract 49 4.4.1 In a nutshell 49 4.4.2 Carrying out, arranging, providing labour for construction operations (Act s. 104(1)) 49 4.4.3 Consultants and advisers (Act s. 104(2)) 50 4.4.4 Contracts of employment (Act s. 104(3)) 50 4.4.5 Construction operations and other matters (Act s. 104(5)) 50 4.4.6 Application of the Act to contracts (Act s. 104(6)) 51 4.4.7 Ancillary agreements 52 4.5 Construction operations 55 4.5.1 In a nutshell 55 4.5.2 Definition of construction operations (Act s. 105(1)) 55 4.6 Excluded construction operations 58 4.6.1 In a nutshell 58 4.6.2 Approach to interpreting the exclusion provisions at section 105(2) of the Act 59 4.6.3 Court s approach to applying the exclusions at subsection 105(2) 59 4.6.4 Drilling and extraction (Act s. 105(2)(a) and (b)) 60 4.6.5 Assembly, installation, erection, demolition in connection with certain activities (Act s. 105(2)(c)) 60 4.6.6 Manufacture, delivery, installation (Act s. 105(2)(d)) 62 4.7 Excluded agreements 62 4.7.1 In a nutshell 62 4.7.2 Residential occupier (Act s. 106(1)(a) and (2)) 63 4.7.3 Exclusion Order (2009 Act, s. 106A; 1996 Act, s. 106(1)(b)) 64 4.8 Contract in writing 66 4.8.1 In a nutshell 66 4.8.2 2009 Act 67 4.8.3 1996 Act only applies to agreements in writing (1996 Act s. 107(1)) 68 4.8.4 In writing (1996 Act s. 107(2)) 68 4.8.5 An agreement made otherwise than in writing (1996 Act s. 107(3)) 69 4.8.6 An agreement evidenced in writing (1996 Act s. 107(4)) 70 4.8.7 An exchange of written submissions in adjudication proceedings (1996 Act s. 107(5)) 70 4.8.8 Scenarios 71 4.9 Checklist: What form of adjudication am I subject to? 74 5 Contractual and ad hoc adjudication 75 5.1 Overview 75 5.2 Contractual adjudication 75 5.2.1 In a nutshell 75 5.2.2 What is a contractual adjudication? 76 5.2.3 Treatment of contractual adjudications by the court 77 5.3 Ad hoc adjudication 79 5.3.1 In a nutshell 79 5.3.2 Ad hoc adjudication by choice 79 5.3.3 Ad hoc jurisdiction by mistake 80 5.3.4 Ad hoc jurisdiction on issues 82 6 Adjudication procedure 83 6.1 Overview 83 6.2 Scheme 84 6.2.1 In a nutshell 84 6.2.2 Does the Scheme apply and the failure to comply with section 108(1) (4) (Act s. 108(5) and 114(4)) 84 6.2.3 Why choose the Scheme? 86 6.2.4 Scheme variants 87 6.3 Contractual procedures 88 6.3.1 In a nutshell 88 6.3.2 JCT 89 6.3.3 ICE/ICC 90 6.3.4 IChemE 91 6.3.5 NEC 92 6.3.6 TeCSA 93 6.3.7 CIC 94 6.3.8 CEDR Solve 95 6.3.9 Bespoke rules 96 6.4 Checklist:What adjudication procedure am I subject to? 96 7 Preconditions and restrictions to statutory adjudication 97 7.1 Overview 97 7.2 Is there a dispute? 98 7.2.1 In a nutshell 98 7.2.2 Court s approach 98 7.2.3 A claim must have been made 99 7.2.4 The meaning of dispute (Act s.108(1)) 100 7.2.5 The point at which to assess whether or not there is a dispute 102 7.2.6 Time period following a claim until a dispute is formed 102 7.2.7 Ambush 104 7.2.8 Scenarios 104 7.3 More than one dispute 108 7.3.1 In a nutshell 108 7.3.2 More than one dispute (Act s. 108(1)) 109 7.3.3 The Scheme (Scheme p. 8) 111 7.4 Substantially the same dispute (Scheme p. 9) 111 7.4.1 In a nutshell 111 7.4.2 Substantially the same dispute 112 7.5 Does the dispute arise under the contract (Act s. 108(1))? 115 7.5.1 In a nutshell 115 7.5.2 Meaning of under the contract 115 7.6 More than one contract 117 7.6.1 In a nutshell 117 7.6.2 More than one contract (Act s. 108(1)) 118 7.6.3 Scheme (Scheme p. 8(2)) 119 7.7 Commencing an adjudication at any time 119 7.7.1 In a nutshell 119 7.7.2 Act (Act s. 108(2)(a)) 119 7.7.3 Conclusivity clauses 121 7.7.4 Statutory limitation 122 7.7.5 Insolvent party 122 8 Adjudication strategy 123 8.1 Overview 123 8.2 Commencing the adjudication process 123 8.2.1 Choosing the right time to start 123 8.2.2 Getting in there first 124 8.3 More than one adjudication 125 8.3.1 Multiple adjudications during the project 125 8.3.2 Concurrent adjudications 125 8.4 Choosing the dispute to refer 126 8.4.1 Appropriate expertise 126 8.4.2 Pecuniary and declaratory claims 127 8.4.3 Contractual interpretation 128 8.4.4 Smash and grab 129 8.4.5 Cherry-picking 136 8.4.6 Large-scale adjudications 137 8.4.7 Without prejudice correspondence 139 8.5 Deploying arguments 139 8.5.1 Save the best until last 139 8.5.2 Reverse ambush 140 8.6 Assessing the other party s willingness and ability to pay 141 8.6.1 Securing assets before the adjudication 141 8.6.2 Can the other party pay? 142 8.7 Removing procedural uncertainty 142 8.7.1 Taking a jurisdiction point early 142 9 Initiating the adjudication 144 9.1 Overview 144 9.2 A precis on jurisdiction and natural justice 145 9.3 Notice of adjudication 146 9.3.1 In a nutshell 146 9.3.2 The Scheme (Scheme p. 1(2) and (3)) 147 9.3.3 Practical considerations 147 9.4 Checklist: Before serving the notice of adjudication referring party 151 9.5 Checklist: On receiving the notice of adjudication responding party 151 9.6 Appointing the adjudicator 152 9.6.1 In a nutshell 152 9.6.2 Timing (Act s. 108(2)(b), Scheme p. 7) 152 9.6.3 Appointment procedure (Scheme p. 2, 3, 5 and 6) 153 9.6.4 Inoperable procedure or defective appointment 155 9.6.5 Appointment by an ANB 156 9.6.6 Choosing the right ANB where one is not specified 158 9.6.7 Forum shopping 160 9.6.8 Appointment of an individual named in the contract 161 9.6.9 Nominated or appointed adjudicator too busy, unwilling or unable to act 162 9.6.10 Natural person and no conflict of interest (Scheme, p. 4) 163 9.6.11 Objections to the appointed adjudicator (Scheme, p. 10) 163 9.6.12 A party s assessment of an adjudicator s capability 164 9.6.13 The prospective adjudicator s assessment of whether he should accept the appointment 166 9.6.14 Post appointment before the dispute is referred 167 9.6.15 Adjudicator s agreement 167 9.6.16 Revoking the adjudicator s appointment (Scheme p. 11) 170 9.7 Checklist: Appointing the adjudicator referring party 171 9.8 Checklist: Appointing the adjudicator responding party 171 9.9 Checklist: Accepting the appointment adjudicator 172 10 The adjudication 173 10.1 Overview 173 10.2 Referral notice 174 10.2.1 In a nutshell 174 10.2.2 Timing (Act s. 108(2)(b)) 174 10.2.3 Scheme (Scheme p. 7) 175 10.2.4 Practical considerations and strategy 177 10.2.5 Actions for the adjudicator once the dispute is referred 180 10.3 Response 181 10.3.1 In a nutshell 181 10.3.2 Timing 182 10.3.3 Practical considerations and strategy 182 10.4 Reply, rejoinder and sur-rejoinder 184 10.4.1 In a nutshell 184 10.4.2 Practical considerations and strategy 184 10.4.3 Parallel correspondence 186 10.5 Meetings 186 10.6 Other matters 188 10.6.1 In a nutshell 188 10.6.2 Communicating with the other party and with the adjudicator during the adjudication 189 10.6.3 Pressure from the parties or the adjudicator 190 10.6.4 Set-off and abatement 191 10.6.5 Dropping a head of claim during the adjudication 194 10.6.6 Withdrawing from the adjudication entirely 195 10.6.7 Privilege 195 10.6.8 Disclosure of documents 198 10.6.9 Settlement offers 199 10.6.10 Staying adjudication proceedings 199 10.6.11 Confidential nature of adjudication (Scheme p. 18) 200 10.6.12 Service of documents and notices (Act s. 115) 200 10.6.13 Reckoning of time (Act s. 116) 201 10.7 Adjudicator s powers and duties 201 10.7.1 In a nutshell 201 10.7.2 Duty to act impartially (Act s. 108(2)(e) and Scheme p. 12(a)) 201 10.7.3 Power to take the initiative (Act s. 108(2)(f ) and Scheme p. 13) 202 10.7.4 Power to make requests or directions (Scheme p. 14 and 15) 204 10.7.5 Power to seek assistance (Act s. 108(2)(f ) and Scheme p. 13(f )) 205 10.7.6 Duty to consider relevant information and provide it to the parties (Scheme p. 17) 206 10.7.7 Scope of what the adjudicator can decide (Scheme p. 20(a) and (b)) 207 10.7.8 Power to award interest (Scheme p. 20(c)) 208 10.7.9 Power to award damages 209 10.7.10 Adjudicator s immunity (Act s. 108(4), Scheme p. 26) 209 10.7.11 Adjudicator resignation (Scheme p. 9) 210 10.8 Checklist: Managing the adjudication the adjudicator 212 11 The decision 214 11.1 Overview 214 11.2 What is the adjudicator required to do? 214 11.2.1 In a nutshell 214 11.2.2 Purpose and nature of the decision 215 11.2.3 Structure, format and content of the decision 216 11.2.4 Reasons 217 11.3 On receiving the decision 218 11.4 Timing 219 11.4.1 In a nutshell 219 11.4.2 Act and Scheme (Act s. 108(2)(c) and (d) and Scheme p.19) 219 11.4.3 Rigidity of the time limit 222 11.4.4 Decision made and decision communicated 222 11.4.5 Responding to the adjudicator s request for an extension 223 11.5 Effect and compliance 223 11.5.1 In a nutshell 223 11.5.2 Temporary finality (Act s. 108(3), Scheme p. 23) 224 11.5.3 Compliance with the decision (Scheme p. 21) 225 11.5.4 Delaying compliance by contract 225 11.5.5 Insurance claims 226 12 Post decision 227 12.1 Overview 227 12.2 Adjudicator s costs 228 12.2.1 In a nutshell 228 12.2.2 2009 Act and 2011 Scheme (2009 Act s. 108A; 2011 Scheme p. 25) 228 12.2.3 1996 Act and 1998 Scheme (1998 Scheme p. 25) 228 12.2.4 Liability for fees 229 12.2.5 Reasonableness of fees and expenses 231 12.2.6 Lien on the decision 232 12.2.7 Payment of fees when the decision is in breach of natural justice 232 12.2.8 Award of adjudicator s costs 232 12.2.9 Payment of fees on paying party s insolvency 233 12.3 Parties costs 233 12.3.1 In a nutshell 233 12.3.2 2009 Act (s. 108A) 233 12.3.3 1996 Act 234 12.3.4 The Late Payment of Commercial Debt (Interest) Act 1998 235 12.4 Apportioning costs 237 12.4.1 In a nutshell 237 12.4.2 Timing 237 12.4.3 Assessment 238 12.5 Correcting errors in the decision 239 12.5.1 In a nutshell 239 12.5.2 The 2009 Act and 2011 Scheme (2009 Act s. 108(3)(A); 2011 Scheme p. 22A) 239 12.5.3 The 1996 Act and 1998 Scheme 240 12.6 Setting off against the decision 241 12.6.1 In a nutshell 241 12.6.2 General rule and exceptions 241 12.6.3 Contractual right to set off 243 12.6.4 Later interim or final certificate 244 12.6.5 Issuing a withholding or pay less notice 244 12.6.6 Setting off liquidated damages 245 12.6.7 Set off permitted but not quantified in the decision 246 12.6.8 Set-off not formulated before the adjudication 247 12.6.9 Adjudication rules prevent set-off in enforcement proceedings 247 12.6.10 Multiple adjudications 247 12.6.11 Litigation on foot 248 12.6.12 Arbitration award 248 12.6.13 Other arguments for set-off 248 13 Enforcement: options and procedure 249 13.1 Overview 249 13.2 Key statements of principle and the court s policy 249 13.2.1 Principles of enforcement 249 13.2.2 Enforcement for contractual adjudications 252 13.3 TCC summary enforcement procedure 252 13.3.1 In a nutshell 252 13.3.2 Nature of summary judgment applications in adjudication 253 13.3.3 Options for commencing the claim 256 13.3.4 Commencing the claim 256 13.3.5 Directions 260 13.3.6 Responding to the claim 260 13.3.7 Submission of cost budgets 261 13.3.8 Hearing bundle and skeletons 261 13.3.9 Extent of the evidence to be submitted 262 13.3.10 Judgment in default and setting aside 262 13.3.11 Representation 263 13.3.12 Timetable to a decision 264 13.3.13 The decision 264 13.3.14 The effect of the court s decision 265 13.3.15 Setting aside a summary judgment 266 13.3.16 Costs: basis of assessment 266 13.3.17 Costs: assessment of the bill of costs 269 13.3.18 Costs: ATE insurance and conditional fee arrangements 272 13.3.19 Costs: interest 272 13.3.20 Costs: settlement reached before summary judgment 273 13.3.21 Appealing a judgment of the court 273 13.3.22 Staying enforcement proceedings where there is an arbitration agreement (s. 9 Arbitration Act 1996) 274 13.4 Other procedures for enforcement 276 13.4.1 In a nutshell 276 13.4.2 Pre-emptory order (Scheme p. 23(1) and 24) 276 13.4.3 Mandatory injunction 277 13.4.4 Statutory demand 278 13.4.5 Scotland 280 13.5 Complying with an order of the court 280 13.5.1 In a nutshell 280 13.5.2 Time for payment 280 13.5.3 Extending the time for payment 281 13.5.4 Failing to comply 281 13.6 Checklist: Avoiding the consequences of an adjudicator s decision 284 14 Enforcement: insolvency, stay and severability 285 14.1 Overview 285 14.2 Insolvency avoids summary judgment 286 14.2.1 In a nutshell 286 14.2.2 Liquidation 287 14.2.3 Administration 287 14.2.4 Administrative receivership 289 14.2.5 CVA 289 14.2.6 Individual insolvency or bankruptcy 290 14.3 Stay of execution 290 14.3.1 In a nutshell 290 14.3.2 Court s discretion to order a stay of execution 291 14.3.3 Insolvency proceedings pending or not concluded 293 14.3.4 Financial difficulty 296 14.3.5 Imminent resolution of other proceedings 298 14.3.6 Manifest injustice 299 14.3.7 Other circumstances in which an application for a stay has failed 299 14.3.8 Partial stay 300 14.3.9 Conditions imposed on granting the stay 301 14.3.10 Severability 301 15 Final determination 304 15.1 Overview 304 15.2 Finalising the adjudicator s decision 305 15.2.1 In a nutshell 305 15.2.2 Adjudicator s decision made final by contract 305 15.2.3 Adjudicator s decision made final by agreement 306 15.2.4 Adjudicator s decision made final by the passing of time 306 15.3 Adjudication and other proceedings 307 15.3.1 In a nutshell 307 15.3.2 Final determination at the same time as enforcement proceedings 307 15.3.3 Final determination at the same time as adjudication 308 15.3.4 Final determination without complying with the adjudicator s decision 309 15.3.5 Final determination in breach of the contractual dispute resolution procedure (including an agreement to adjudicate) 309 15.4 Commencement, onus of proof and costs 312 15.4.1 In a nutshell 312 15.4.2 Cause of action and limitation period for commencing final proceedings 312 15.4.3 Delaying the final determination 314 15.4.4 Onus of proof in subsequent proceedings 315 15.4.5 Final decision different to adjudicator s decision 315 15.4.6 Recovery of adjudication costs as part of the costs of a final determination 315 16 The adjudicator s jurisdiction 319 16.1 Overview 319 16.2 When to think about jurisdiction 319 16.3 Options when a jurisdictional issue arises 320 16.3.1 In a nutshell 320 16.3.2 Option 1: Determination from the court 321 16.3.3 Option 2: Determination by the adjudicator 324 16.3.4 Option 3: Determination from another adjudicator 326 16.3.5 Option 4: Reserve the position and proceed with the adjudication 327 16.3.6 Option 5:Withdraw 328 16.3.7 Option 6: Injunction 329 16.4 Losing the right to challenge the adjudicator s jurisdiction 331 16.4.1 In a nutshell 331 16.4.2 Waiver 332 16.4.3 No reservation or late reservation 333 16.4.4 Abandoning the reservation 334 16.4.5 Initial consent before objection 335 16.4.6 Approbation and reprobation 335 16.4.7 Consequence of losing the right: ad hoc jurisdiction 338 16.5 Threshold jurisdiction challenges 338 16.5.1 In a nutshell 338 16.5.2 No contract 339 16.5.3 Contract is not a construction contract 339 16.5.4 Construction contract is not in writing 340 16.5.5 No dispute 340 16.5.6 More than one dispute 341 16.5.7 Substantially the same dispute 341 16.5.8 Dispute not under the contract 342 16.6 Process jurisdiction challenges 342 16.6.1 In a nutshell 342 16.6.2 Incorrect parties named 343 16.6.3 Adjudicator not correctly appointed 344 16.6.4 Referral notice served out of time 347 16.6.5 Arguments outside the scope of the dispute 347 16.6.6 Defective service 348 16.6.7 New material during the adjudication 348 16.6.8 Other procedural improprieties 349 16.7 Decision based jurisdiction challenges 349 16.7.1 In a nutshell 349 16.7.2 Lien over the decision 350 16.7.3 Failure to reach the decision within the required timescale 350 16.7.4 Signing the decision 351 16.7.5 Sufficiency of written reasons 351 16.7.6 Scope of the decision 353 16.7.7 Errors 357 16.7.8 Correcting minor errors in the decision 360 16.8 Checklist: Jurisdiction the parties 360 16.9 Checklist: Jurisdiction the adjudicator 361 17 Natural justice 362 17.1 Overview 362 17.1.1 What is it? 362 17.1.2 Materiality 363 17.2 When to think about natural justice 364 17.3 Options when a natural justice point arises 364 17.4 Bias and apparent bias 366 17.4.1 In a nutshell 366 17.4.2 Actual bias 367 17.4.3 Apparent bias 368 17.4.4 Prior involvement in the project or in a separate dispute 369 17.4.5 Appointment of the same adjudicator 370 17.4.6 Communication between the adjudicator and one party: pre-appointment 371 17.4.7 Communication between the adjudicator and one party: post-appointment 373 17.4.8 Evidence 373 17.4.9 Failure to make information available to the parties 375 17.4.10 Failure to carry out a site visit 375 17.4.11 Organisation of meetings and hearings 376 17.4.12 Quasi-mediator 376 17.4.13 Without prejudice communications 377 17.4.14 Preliminary view 377 17.5 Procedural fairness 378 17.5.1 In a nutshell 378 17.5.2 Referring party s conduct pre-adjudication 379 17.5.3 Abuse of process 380 17.5.4 Ambush/no opportunity or insufficient opportunity to respond 380 17.5.5 Christmas claims 382 17.5.6 Dispute is too large or complex 382 17.5.7 Failing to address an issue, part of a submission or evidence 384 17.5.8 Failure to permit a further submission or information 389 17.5.9 Failure to follow the agreed procedure 390 17.5.10 Adjudicator s timetable unfair 391 17.5.11 Documents received late or not at all 391 17.5.12 Failure to inform the parties about an approach taken or methodology used 392 17.5.13 Failure to inform the parties about advice from a third party 395 17.5.14 Failure to inform the parties about use of own knowledge and expertise 395 17.5.15 Failure to inform the parties about preliminary view 397 17.5.16 Sufficiency of reasons 398 17.6 Checklist: Natural justice the parties and the adjudicator 399 18 Further grounds for resisting enforcement 400 18.1 Overview 400 18.2 Fraud or deceit 401 18.3 Duress 402 18.4 UTCCR 403 18.5 Human Rights Act 404 19 Scotland: Tony Jones 406 19.1 Overview 406 19.2 Differences between the Scheme and the Scottish Scheme 408 19.2.1 1998 Scheme and 1998 Scottish Scheme 408 19.2.2 2011 Scheme and 2011 Scottish Scheme 410 19.3 Enforcement of an adjudicator s award 411 19.3.1 In a nutshell 411 19.3.2 Enforcement procedure 412 19.3.3 Counterclaims 414 19.3.4 The Scottish courts approach to jurisdictional challenges 415 19.3.5 The Scottish courts approach to natural justice challenges 416 19.3.6 Miscellaneous points 417 19.4 Issues of divergence between England andWales and Scotland 418 19.4.1 In a nutshell 418 19.4.2 Failure to comply with subsections 108(1) (4) of the Act 418 19.4.3 Adjudicator s decision out of time 419 19.4.4 Parties costs under the 1996 Act 419 19.4.5 Insolvency 420 19.4.6 Approbation and reprobation 422 19.4.7 The size and nature of the claim 422 19.4.8 Abuse of process 423 19.4.9 The adjudicator taking advice from a third party or using his own knowledge 424 19.4.10 Human Rights Act 425 20 Northern Ireland: Michael Humphreys QC 427 20.1 Overview 427 20.2 Enforcement of adjudicators awards 429 20.2.1 The writ of summons 430 20.2.2 The application for summary judgment 431 20.2.3 The hearing of the application 432 20.2.4 Incidence of costs 433 20.2.5 Taxation of costs 433 20.2.6 Enforcement of judgments 434 20.3 An alternative remedy declaratory relief 434 20.4 Judicial consideration 435 20.4.1 In a nutshell 435 20.4.2 No construction contract 435 20.4.3 No dispute 436 20.4.4 Setting off against an adjudicator s decision 437 20.4.5 Financial difficulty of the paying party 437 20.4.6 Insufficient time to respond 439 20.4.7 Abuse of process 439 Part II International 21 Introduction 443 22 Australia: PeterWood and Phillip Greenham 446 22.1 Overview 446 22.1.1 Initial introduction in NSW 446 22.1.2 Rollout across the remaining states 447 22.1.3 East-west coast divide 448 22.1.4 Consequences of the divide 448 22.2 Requirements for commencing an adjudication 449 22.2.1 Construction contract 449 22.2.2 Construction work 450 22.2.3 Claimable variations and excluded amounts in Victoria 451 22.2.4 Reference date 451 22.2.5 Time limits 452 22.2.6 Who may refer a dispute under a construction contract to adjudication? 453 22.3 Adjudication process 453 22.3.1 Appointment of the adjudicator 453 22.3.2 Conduct of the adjudication 455 22.4 Determination, effect and costs 456 22.4.1 Form of the decision 456 22.4.2 Effect of the decision 456 22.4.3 Costs 457 22.5 Enforcement 458 22.5.1 Process for enforcement 458 22.5.2 Express rights of appeal 458 22.5.3 Judicial review of adjudication determinations 459 23 Ireland: DermotMcEvoy 461 23.1 Overview 461 23.2 Requirements for commencing an adjudication 462 23.3 Adjudication process 464 23.3.1 Notice of adjudication 464 23.3.2 Appointment of an adjudicator 465 23.3.3 Powers and duties of an adjudicator 467 23.4 Determination, effect and costs 469 23.5 Enforcement 470 23.6 Conclusion 471 24 Malaysia: Philip Koh 473 24.1 Overview 473 24.2 Requirements for commencing the adjudication process 474 24.2.1 What contracts are caught by the 2012 Act? 474 24.2.2 Retrospective effect of the 2012 Act 478 24.3 Adjudication process 478 24.3.1 Step 1: Payment claim 479 24.3.2 Step 2: Initiation of adjudication 479 24.3.3 Step 3: Appointment 479 24.3.4 Step 4: Submissions 480 24.3.5 Step 5:The adjudicator 480 24.4 Administration of the adjudication 481 24.5 Determination, effect and costs 482 24.5.1 Form and timing of the decision 482 24.5.2 Effect of the decision 482 24.5.3 Costs 483 24.6 Enforcement 484 24.6.1 Suspension or a reduction in the pace of work 484 24.6.2 Secure direct payment from principal 485 24.7 Conclusion 485 25 New Zealand: T'omas Kennedy-Grant QC 487 25.1 Overview 487 25.2 Requirements for commencing an adjudication 488 25.3 Adjudication process 490 25.4 Determination, effect and costs 493 25.4.1 Rights of a non-respondent owner 496 25.5 Enforcement 496 25.5.1 Judicial review 499 25.6 Proposed amendments 500 26 Singapore: Steven Cannon 501 26.1 Overview 501 26.2 Requirements for commencing an adjudication 502 26.2.1 What contracts are caught by the 2004 Act? 502 26.2.2 Contracting out, the date of execution of the contract and contracts made in writing 503 26.3 Payment regime 504 26.3.1 The right to progress payments 504 26.3.2 The payment regime 504 26.3.3 The crystallisation of a dispute and the dispute settlement period 507 26.4 Adjudication process 508 26.4.1 The role of the Singapore Mediation Centre 508 26.4.2 Notice of an intention to adjudicate 508 26.4.3 The adjudication application 509 26.4.4 The role of the adjudicator 512 26.5 Determination, effect and costs 515 26.5.1 The adjudicator s determination 515 26.5.2 The costs of the adjudication 516 26.5.3 Adjudication review applications 517 26.5.4 The effect of an adjudicator s determination 517 26.6 Enforcement 518 26.6.1 Enforcement of the adjudicator s determination 518 26.6.2 Setting aside the adjudicator s determination 518 26.7 Conclusion 520 Appendices Appendix 1 The 1996 Act as amended 523 Appendix 2 The 1998 Scheme as amended 530 Appendix 3 Glossary (UK only) 538 Appendix 4 Model forms 542 Appendix 5 Summary comparison of UK adjudication rules 561 Appendix 6 Details of UK adjudicator nominating bodies 570 Appendix 7 Comparison of UK and international statutory regimes 578 Appendix 8 Case index: by subjectmatter 584 Appendix 9 Alphabetical case index 678 Index 709

Product Details

  • publication date: 11/12/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118717950
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 768
  • ID: 9781118717950
  • weight: 1210
  • ISBN10: 1118717953

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

Prices are for internet purchases only. Prices and availability in WHSmith Stores may vary significantly

Close