A Research Primer for Communication Sciences and Disorders
By: Timothy Meline (author)Paperback
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A Research Primer for Communication Sciences and Disorders addresses the most current topics in research, presents them clearly for students and practitioners, focuses on getting research evidence into practice, directs students and instructors to additional resources, and provides many case examples and study questions. The book is ideal for face-to-face classroom teaching or distance-learning courses. FEATURES:Each chapter begins with a word definition that introduces each chapter's key theme, and is referred to throughout the chapter in notes and boxes which highlight technology and other areas of interest.Case studies which illustrate relevant concepts and approaches to research open each chapter.Student Reflection Questions, Activities and Exercises designed to encourage critical thinking and independent research appear in each chapter.Includes an entire chapter devoted to introducing evidence-based practice issues, and continues to consistently enforce an evidence-based practice approach to research and practice.Designed for either classroom or distance learning, and including both basic and advanced content, this book is easily used independently by distance learners or in the classroom at the undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral level.
Research Primer for Communication Sciences and Disorders TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Introduction and Orientation DedicationSection IFoundations of Science and Research in Communication Disorders Chapter 1 Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Research A. The Scientific Methoda. Scientific principles: Order, determinism, and discoverabilityb. Scientific observationsc. Cause and effectd. Steps in the scientific method 1. Stating the problem 2. Formulating the research hypothesis 3. Developing the research method 4. The analyzing results 5. Interpreting results B. Types of Research in Communication Disordersa. Basic and applied research typesb. Laboratory and field studiesc. Experimental vs. quasi-experimental research typesd. Research designs in communication disorders C. Types of Variables in Communication Disorders Research a. Independent and dependent variables b. Active and attribute variables c. Continuous and categorical variables d. Extraneous variables in communication disorders research D. Operational Definitions in Communication Disorders Research a. Two types of operational definitions b. The limits of operational definitions E. Data Collection in Communication Disorders Research F. The Reliability of Collected Data a. Blinding procedures b. Interobserver reliability measures G. Internal Validity in Communication Disorders Research H. Eight Common Threats to internal Validity a. Ambiguous temporal precedence effects b. Controlling ATP effects c. Differential selection effects d. Controlling selection effects e. History effects f. Controlling history effects g. Maturation effects h. Controlling maturation effects i. Statistical regression effects j. Controlling regression effects k. Attrition effects l. Controlling attrition effects m. Multiple-tests effects n. Controlling testing effects o. Instrumentation effects p. Controlling instrument effects q. Additive and interactive effects I. External Validity in Communication Disorders Research a. Seven threats to external validity1. Accessible population versus target population2. Describing the independent variable explicitly3. Multiple-treatment interference effects4. Novelty and disruption effects5. Experimenter effects6. Pretest and posttest sensitization effects7. Measurement of the dependent variable J. Conclusion: Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Research K. Case Studies: Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Researcha. Case 1.10 Snooping for Unusual Datab. Case 1.20 Nuisance Variables for Professor Ross?c. Case 1.30 A Question of Timed. Case 1.40 Solving the Conflict Between Internal Validity and External Validitye. Case 1.50 Is Replication a Legitimate Scientific Pursuit? L. Student Exercises: Scientific Inquiry in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 2 Ethics in Communication Disorders Research A. A Short History of Human Rights a. The monster study b. What is moral conduct? c. What are the rights of research participants? d. The Belmont Report B. Animals in Research a. What separates animals from humans? b. Why are animals used in research? c. Protections for animals in research d. Abuse and misuse of animals in research C. Professional Codes of Ethics in Research a. Ethical principle one: Respect for persons b. Ethical principle two: Beneficence c. Ethical principle three: Justice d. Statements of ethics in research D. Issues in Research Ethicsa. Research participantsb. Informed consentc. Privacy and confidentialityd. Withholding treatmentse. Collecting data, describing procedures, and reporting resultsf. Conflicts of interest in researchg. Honoring promises and commitments to participants E. Evidence-Based Practice and Ethics in Research F. Conclusion: Ethics in Communication Disorders Research G. Case Studies: Evaluating Ethics in Communication Disorders Research a. Case 2.10 Mrs. Tollers's Dilemma b. Case 2.20 Authorship for Professor Baker c. Case 2.30 Deception in the Classroom d. Case 2.40 Students for Ethics in Animal Research e. Case 2.50 Appointment to the Institutional Review Board H. Student Exercises: Ethics in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 3 Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders A. What is evidence-based practice? B. A Short History of Evidence-Based Practice a. The earliest systematic clinical trial b. The evidence-based practice movement C. What are the ethics in evidence-based practice? a. Evidence-based practice benefits b. Evidence-based practice risks D. A Simple Model for Evidence-Based Practice E. Implementation Issues for Evidence-Based Practice a. What are clinical practice guidelines? b. What are the acceptance and adherence issues? c. Resistance to change in clinical practices F. Common Misperceptions about Evidence-Based Practice a. Misconception: EBP is a cookbook approach to clinical practice b. Misconception: EBP is solely a matter of science c. Misconception: Textbooks are good sources for answering specific clinical questions d. Misconception: Reading journals and attending conferences are sufficient for EBP e. Misconception: EBP is useless when there is no good evidence f. Misconception: EBP is just numbers and statistics g. Misconception: EBP is ineffective without randomized controlled trials G. Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Practice H. What is the Future of Evidence-Based Practice? I. Conclusion: Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders J. Case Studies: Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders a. Case 3.10 Should I change interventions? b. Case 3.20 Smallville Schools need guidance c. Case 3.30 A revolutionary new device d. Case 3.50 Samuel's private practice K. Student Exercises: Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders Chapter 4 Measurement in Communication Disorders Research A. Characteristics of Data a. Ordinal level of data b. Interval level of data c. Ratio level of data d. Nominal level data B. The Limitations of Stevens' Taxonomy C. Data Transformation in Communication Disorders D. Multiple Measures in Communication Disorders E. Descriptive Statistics in Communication Disordersa. Measures of locationb. Measures of individual locationc. Measures of variabilityd. Counting numbers of different categoriese. The rangef. The varianceg. Standard deviationh. The coefficient of variation F. Statistical Graphics in Communication Disordersa. Univariate statistical graphicsb. Bivariate statistical graphicsc. Comparing two or more samplesd. Graphing individual observations G. Conclusion: Measurement in Communication Disorders Research H. Case Studies: Measurement in Communication Disorders Researcha. Case 4.10 Collaboration and Consultationb. Case 4.20 Challenge for Clinician-Researchers in Schoolsc. Case 4.30 Controlled Experimentation at General Hospitald. Case 4.40 Zach and Britney's Dilemmae. Case 4.50 Sarah's Argument I. Student Exercises: Measurement in Communication Disorders Research Section IIResearch Designs for Scientists/Practitioners in Communication Disorders Chapter 5 Group Designs in Communication Disorders Research A. What is a Good Hypothesis? B. What Determines the Quality of a Research Design? C. Sampling Protocols in Communication Disorders a. Sampling Methods in Communication Disorders b. Selecting Participants for Research Studies c. What is a Representative Sample? d. Sample Size and Power e. Computer-Generated Power Analysis 1. The choice of effect size 2. A case example for power analysis D. Evaluating Selection Procedures in Communication Disorders E. Single-Group Designs in Communication Disorders F. Shortcomings in Single-Group Research Designs G. Two-Group Designs in Communication Disorders H. Parallel versus Crossover Research Designs I. Independent versus Related Research Designs a. Why is randomization important? J. Simple Randomization and Alternative Balancing Procedures a. Block randomization b. Stratified randomization c. Minimization procedures d. Why is allocation concealment important? K. Experimental versus Quasi-Experimental Designs L. Group Equivalence in Quasi-Experimental Designs M. More Complex Designs in Communication Disorders a. Multivalent Research Designs b. Factorial Research Designs N. Multiple-Group Designs in Communication Disorders O. Variations in the Three-Group Design in Communication Disorders P. Conclusion: Group Designs in Communication Disorders Research Q. Case Studies: Group Designs in Communication Disordersa. Case 5.10 Weak or Strong Designb. Case 5.20 Do Thickened Liquids Work?c. Case 5.30 Problem of Matching Participantsd. Case 5.40 How Many Subjects?e. Case 5.50 Let's Be More Sensitive R. Student Exercises: Group Designs in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 6 Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders A. Introduction to Qualitative Researcha. Definitionb. Ten themes B. Foundations of Qualitative Research a. Introduction to general approaches b. Ethnography c. Phenomenology d. Field research e. Grounded theory C. Qualitative Research Designs and Methods a. The case study method b. Case examples: The case study method c. The discourse analysis method d. Case examples: The discourse analysis method e. The kinesic analysis method f. The direct observation method g. Case example: The direct observation method h. The participant observation method i. The unstructured in-depth interview method j. Case examples: The unstructured in-depth interview D. Credibility and Transferability in Qualitative Research E. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods a. Case examples: Combining qualitative and quantitative methods F. Conclusion: Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders G. Case Studies: Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders a. Case 6.10 Why Speech-Language Pathology? b. Case 6.20 Let's Focus on AAC c. Case 6.30 Email or Not to Email d. Case 6.40 What's With Triangulation? e. Case 6.50 Contemplating a Qualitative Thesis H. Student Exercises: Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders Chapter 7 Single Case Designs in Communication Disorders Research A. Introduction to Single Case Designs B. Single Case Designs vs. Group Designs C. The Baseline Phase in Single Case Designs D. The A-B-A Single Case Design E. Replication in Single Case Designs F. Case Example: The A-B-A-B Single Case Design G. Case Example: The A-B-A-B Alternating Treatments Single Case Design H. Visual Inspection vs. Statistical Tests I. The Multiple-Baseline Single Case Design a. Case examples: The multiple-baseline single case design J. The Changing-Criterion Single Case Design K. The Simultaneous-Treatments Single Case Design L. Case Example: The Simultaneous-Treatment Single Case Design M. Conclusion: Single Case Designs in Communication Disorders Research N. Case Studies: Single Case Designs in Communication Disordersa. Case 7.10 Problem of Limited Resourcesb. Case 7.20 Quest for Evidence of Maintenancec. Case 7.30 Balancing Ethics with Scientific Inquiryd. Case 7.40 The Difficulty of Choosing a Designe. Case 7.50 making Sense of Single Case Results O. Student Exercises: Single Case Designs in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 8 Non-Experimental Research Designs in Communication Disorders A. Introduction to Non-Experimental Research Designs B. Distinctive Features of Non-Experimental Approaches a. The case study and ethnographic Approaches b. The historical approach c. The correlation method d. The developmental approach e. The survey method C. Correlational Research in Communication Disordersa. Direction and degree of relationshipb. Correlation coefficientsc. The index of determinationd. Case example: Correlational research D. Developmental Research in Communication Disordersa. Longitudinal research designs1. Limitations in longitudinal designs2. Case example: Longitudinal research in communication disordersb. Cross-sectional research designs1. Limitations in cross-sectional designs2. Case example: Cross-sectional research in communication disordersc. Semi-longitudinal research designs1. Limitations in semi-longitudinal designs2. Case example: Semi-longitudinal research in communication disorders E. Survey Research in Communication Disorders a. Sampling issues in survey designs b. Minimizing sampling error c. Types of survey research designs d. Types of survey response formats 1. Filter questions 2. The structured response format 3. The unstructured response format F. Case Examples: Survey Research in Communication Disorders a. Case one: A mail survey b. Case two: A telephone survey c. Case three: A web-based survey G. Conclusion: Non-Experimental Designs in Communication Disorders Research H. Case Studies: Non-Experimental Research Designs in Communicative Disordersa. Case 8.10 A Case of Too Little Too Lateb. Case 8.20 Case of the Chicken and Eggc. Case 8.30 The Long and the Short of Itd. Case 8.40 The Problem with Spam Filterse. Case 8.50 How Many Participants are Needed? I. Student Exercises: Non-Experimental Research Designs in Communication Disorders Section IIITesting hypotheses in Communication Sciences andDisorders Research Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing in Communication Disorders Research A. The Hypothesis Testing Process a. Step One: State the Hypothesis 1. The null hypothesis 2. The alternative hypothesis b. Step Two: Set an Acceptable Level of Risk c. Step Three: Choose the Sample Size d. Step Four: Determine the Critical Value 1. Alternative hypotheses 2. The rejection region e. Step Five: Compute the Test Statistic f. Step Six: Make a Decision about Ho B. The Normal Distribution C. The Standard Normal Distribution a. Standard units b. Transformed standard scores c. Shapes of frequency distributions d. Skewed distributions e. Other common shapes for frequency distributions D. The Distribution of a Sample Statistic a. The distribution of sample means b. The standard error of the mean E. The Central Limit Theorem a. Estimating population parameters b. Point estimates vs. interval estimates F. Student's t Distributions G. Conclusion: Hypothesis Testing in Communication Disorders H. Case Studies: Hypotheses Testing in Communication Disorders Research a. Case 9.10 Adam's Dilemma b. Case 9.20 A Clinical Case for Priscilla c. Case 9.30 Question of Parameters d. Case 9.40 The Importance of Interval Estimates e. Case 9.50 Carl's Sampling Distribution I. Student Exercises: Hypothesis Testing in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 10 Quantitative Analysis in Communication Disorders Research A. Introduction to Quantitative Analysis B. Testing Hypotheses with Inferential Statistics a. What are inferential statistics? b. How do I choose a statistical test? C. Tests of Differences between Two Groups/Conditions a. Independent-samples designs b. Related-samples designs D. Tests for Differences between Multiple Groups/Conditions a. Simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) b. Complex analysis of variance c. Post hoc comparisons E. Tests for Analyzing Categorical Data F. Effect Size Statistics a. The family of effect-size statistics b. The simple effect size c. The effect size correlation d. The standardized effect size e. How should we interpret effect sizes? G. The Problem of Unequal Sample Sizes H. Conclusion: Quantitative Analysis in Communication Disorders Research I. Case Studies: Quantitative Analysis in Communication Disorders Research a. Case 10.10 A Quandary for Klein and Brown b. Case 10.20 Inequality Dilemma for the Chavez School Research Team c. Case 10.30 Student Researchers Maria and Stephen Seek Advice d. Case 10.40 Judging the Importance of Research Results e. Beth's Dilemma J. Student Exercises: Quantitative Analysis in Communication Disorders Research Chapter 11 Synthesizing Research in Communication Disorders A. Introduction to Synthesizing Research in Communication Disorders B. A Model for Clinical-Outcome Researcha. Phase I clinical-outcome researchb. Phase II clinical-outcome researchc. Phase III clinical-outcome researchd. Phase IV clinical-outcome researche. Phase V clinical-outcome research C. The Narrative Approach to Systematic Reviews D. The Quantitative Approach to Systematic Reviewsa. Modern meta-analysisb. An early review with meta-analysis E. The Best Evidence Approach to Systematic Reviews F. Steps in the Systematic Review Processa. Step one: Develop a research hypothesis and eligibility criteria 1. Case example 2. Eligibility criteriab. Step two: Develop a search strategy and select studies for inclusionc. Step three: Assess study quality 1. The threshold approach 2. The quality-weighting approachd. Step four: Collect data and convert study statistics to a common metrice. Step five: Analyze and present results 1. Measuring heterogeneity 2. Statistical models f. Step six: Interpret the results G. The Epidemiology of Systematic Reviews H. When is a Systematic Review Out-of-Date? I. The Realist Review Method J. Conclusion: Synthesizing Research in Communication Disorders K. Case Studies: Synthesizing Research in Communication Disordersa. Case 11.10 Database Dilemmasb. Case 11.20 More or Less for Professor Moore and Associatesc. Case 11.30 A Problem of Incompatibilityd. Case 11.40 A Question of Neede. Case 11.50 A Stodgy Professor L. Student Exercises: Synthesizing Research in Communication Disorders Section IVApplied Research for audiologists AND Speech-Language Pathologists Chapter 12 Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disorders A. Introduction to Evaluating Research B. What is the Report About? C. How Does the Study Fit into What is Already Known? D. How Was the Study Done?a. Description of participants or subjectsb. Description of the apparatus and materialc. Description of the procedure E. What Was Found?a. Do results address practical significance and clinical importance?b. Case examplec. How is the confidence interval interpreted?d. Case example with a small sample F. What Do the Results Mean? G. Conclusion: Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disorders H. Case Studies: Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disordersa. Case 12.10 Professor Matlin's Dilemmab. Case 12.20 Collaborating for Reading Fluencyc. Case 12.30 Implications for Evidence-Based Practice?d. Case 12.40 Clinically Significant?e. Case 12.50 Efrain's Dilemma I. Student Exercises: Evaluating Research for Practice in Communication Disorders Chapter 13 Writing for Research in Communication Disorders A. Introduction to Writing for Research B. Planning, Executing, and Writing in Research C. Models of the Writing Process D. The Importance of Reader Expectations E. The Prewriting and Planning Stage F. The Writing and Drafting Stage a. The possibility of plagiarismb. Writing the introductionc. Writing the research methodd. Writing the research resultse. Writing the discussionf. Writing the title and abstractg. Writing references and appendixes G. The Rewriting and Revision Stage H. The Editing Stage I. The Publication and Presentation Stage J. Writing the Thesis K. Conclusion: Writing for Research in Communication Disorders L. Case Studies: Writing for Research in Communication Disordersa. Case 13.10 Plan for Collaborative Writingb. Case 13.20 Will Julie and Eddie Avoid Plagiarism?c. Case 13.30 Ana and Jose Need Adviced. Case 13.40 Writing Crampse. Case 13.50 Clarissa is Reluctant M. Student Exercises: Writing for Research in Communication Disorders References Author Index Subject Index
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