A Short History of Renaissance Italy

A Short History of Renaissance Italy

By: Lisa Kaborycha (author)Paperback

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The book follows an interdisciplinary approach and covers the origins of the Italian Renaissance through the Baroque period. It is comprised of fifteen chapters, organized chronologically, along with an introduction and conclusion.

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About Author

Lisa Kaborycha has a Ph.D. in Medieval and Early Modern History and an M.A. in Italian Studies from the University of California, Berkeley, where for years she taught undergraduate courses in Renaissance Italian History and Culture. A former recipient of the Fulbright Award and National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow at the Medici Archive Project, Dr. Kaborycha currently resides in Florence, Italy, where she is a Research Fellow at Villa I Tatti, the Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies.


Preface xiv Foreword by Gene A. Brucker xviii A Note Concerning Dating xx Chapter 1: Out of the Ashes: The Rise of the Communes and Florence in the Age of Dante 1 The grandeur that was Rome 2 The spread of Christianity 3 The empire returns? 5 The Commercial Revolution 5 Communal governments sprout up in Italy 6 Tensions between magnates and popolo 8 The age of the popular commune, 1200-1290 8 A "pullulation of little powers" 10 Florentines, the "fifth element of the world" 11 Dante Alighieri, Florentine poet and political exile 12 The Divine Comedy, the first masterpiece of Italian literature 13 "Those brand new people and their sudden earnings" 14 Mendicant friars praised and corrupt popes punished 14 Dante on the separate powers of church and state 15 An explosion of naturalism in art-Giotto Di Bondone 16 Sculptural innovators-Nicola, Giovanni, and Andrea Pisano 17 Considerations-"Medieval" or "Renaissance"? 17 Resources 18 Chapter 2: The Crises of the Fourteenth Century: Climatic, Epidemic, Demographic Disasters 20 Climate change-Global cooling 21 The Hundred Years' War and crash of international banking 22 1347-A devastating pandemic arrives in Europe 22 Boccaccio's account of the Black Death 25 The life of Giovanni Boccaccio 25 The Decameron , 100 tales of love, lust, and loss 26 Society in the wake of the Black Death 27 Government and medicine respond to the crisis 28 Social mobility and unrest 28 The Ciompi Rebellion 30 Town and country 30 "Motionless History" in the countryside 31 Hard times in the Contado 31 An age of new men 32 Painting in the early Trecento-The Sienese school 33 Art in the aftermath of the Black Death 34 Recovery and renewal 34 Considerations-Just how calamitous was the fourteenth century? 35 Resources 35 Chapter 3: Back to the Future: Italian Humanists Recover the Classical Past 37 Humanism-A cultural revolution led by notaries 38 The medieval scholastic heritage 39 Italian humanists restore ancient texts 40 The life of Petrarch-A passionate humanist 41 "Carried away by the fire of youth ..." 42 Petrarch's interiority-It's all about "me" 43 Scattered Rhymes 43 An "educational surge"-Literacy and learning in Italian cities 45 The flowering of Florentine vernacular culture 47 Rhetoric-How to speak with strength, impetuosity and grace 48 The generation after Petrarch-Salutati, Bruni, and civic humanism 48 Ghiberti's vigorous bronze reliefs 51 Donatello's sculpture-Classical grace and civic virtue 52 Brunelleschi, engineer, architect, and pioneer of perspective 53 Masaccio, a painter of dramatic realism 54 Considerations-Humanism, humanitarianism, and the humanities 55 Resources 55 Chapter 4: Caput Mundi Again? Rome from Cola di Rienzo to Pius II 57 The city of the Caesars becomes the city of the popes 59 The papacy precariously balanced on a rock 59 Roman communal politics-A "monstrous thing" 60 The two swords of Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair clash 61 A manifesto of papal absolutism-Unam sanctam 61 Rome widowed 62 The meteoric rise and fall of Cola di Rienzo 63 The Babylonian Captivity of the church, 1309-1378 64 The popes return to Rome 66 Antipopes and Western Schism, 1378-1417 66 The conciliar movement, 1409-1439 67 The birth of the Renaissance "papal prince" 69 Popes Martin V, Eugenius IV, and Nicholas V rebuild Rome, 1417-1455 69 The amazing Leon Battista Alberti 71 Reinventing the role of the architect 73 The Commentaries of Pius II, the humanist pope 74 Considerations-Renaissance pope and Renaissance man 76 Resources 77 Chapter 5: Hearth and Home: Lay Piety,Women, and the Family 79 Religion-A family affair 81 The saints-Christ's special friends 82 Confraternities-Group settings for prayer and good deeds 82 A Third Order of monasticism for laypeople 83 Female holiness in an age of living saints 84 Religion in women's daily lives 86 Who were Laura and Beatrice really? 87 "What's love got to do with It?"-Marriage among Renaissance elites 88 Governing the household-The woman's realm 90 A woman's voice from the patrician class-Alessandra Strozzi 90 The widow's limited options 92 The nun in her cloister-Protected or imprisoned? 92 Working women-Domestic servants and wet nurses 93 Social outcasts-Prostitutes, outsiders, and slaves 94 Images of women in Renaissance art 94 Considerations-Was it the Renaissance for men, but the Dark Ages for women? 96 Resources 97 Chapter 6: Lords of the Renaissance: The Medici, Visconti, and Sforza Dynasties through 1466 99 From commune to signoria 100 Dissatisfaction within the communes 100 Life under the signore 102 Milan-In the middle of it all 103 The Visconti-The clan of vipers 104 Giangaleazzo Visconti-A prince among tyrants? 106 An intermission between two Milanese dynasties-The Ambrosian Republic, 1447-1450 107 Francesco Sforza-From soldier of fortune to statesman 107 The Medici-Where did they come from? 108 Giovanni di Bicci lays the foundations of the Medici banking fortune 109 Cosimo de' Medici (1389-1464)-Son of a money changer, father of his country 110 "Be careful not to draw attention to yourself" 110 1433-Arrest and exile 111 Cosimo's triumphal 1434 return-"A king in all but name" 111 1454-Peace breaks out in Italy 112 Art, politics, and money-The patronage of Cosimo de' Medici 113 "Having so much on his conscience ..." Vespasiano da Bisticci on Cosimo's rebuilding of the Monastery of San Marco 114 Considerations-Was the Renaissance a cultural byproduct of new lords seeking to legitimize their rule? 115 Resources 117 Chapter 7: The Mezzogiorno: The "Other Renaissance" in Naples and Sicily 118 Land of myth and midday sun 119 Sicily-Bread-basket and lumber yard for Rome 120 Campania Felix-Naples and surroundings under the Roman Empire 120 Fifth to ninth century invasions-Vandals, Goths, Byzantines, Arabs 122 The south emerges as economic powerhouse, cultural melting pot in the ninth century 122 Norman domination of the south, 1059-1130 123 Frederick II (1194-1250)-An emperor who was the wonder of the world 124 The Sicilian Vespers 126 Aragon and Anjou fight over the two Sicilies, 1282-1442 127 The Two Sicilies reunited under Alfonso of Aragon, 1442 128 Ferrante I-The "bastard" who brought stability to Naples 129 The Renaissance in Naples, 1443-1494 130 Antonello da Messina's paintings-Meticulous realism and haunting mystery 131 Alfonso's patronage of humanists 132 Lorenzo Valla-Humanist scholar and freethinker 132 Discourse on the Forgery of the Alleged Donation of Constantine 133 Considerations-Was the south backward or ahead of its time? 135 Resources 136 Chapter 8: La Serenissima:When Venice Ruled the Seas 138 "You live like sea birds, your homes scattered over the water ..." 140 The Venetians' battle for survival 140 Inventing a Venetian identity-The city of Saint Mark takes wing, 810-1000 142 From the "Venetian Gulf" to "Beyond-the-Sea", 1000-1204 145 The Venetian commune comes of age, 1032-1297 146 The Great Council-Keystone of the Venetian Republic 148 The "aristocratic commune" closes ranks-The 1297 serrata 148 The Council of Ten-The vigilant lion 149 The Doge of Venice-Prince or primus inter pares? 150 "Lords of the sea" 150 Expansion of the Venetian Empire into the terraferma 152 Daily life in Renaissance Venice 153 Festivals, scuole, and venezianita 155 Humanism, printing, the sciences 156 Venetian painting of the early Renaissance-Bellini and Carpaccio 157 The Renaissance comes to Venetian architecture-Sansovino 159 Gasparo Contarini's The Commonwealth and Government of Venice 159 Considerations-The myth and countermyth of Venice 160 Resources 161 Chapter 9: Magnificent Florence: Life under Lorenzo De' Medici, 1469-1492 163 The restlessness of the Florentine Elites, 1464-1469 164 Lorenzo takes control, 1469-1477 165 "Brigades" of poets and jousts for love 166 Marsilio Ficino and Florentine Platonism 166 Vernacular magnificence-Lorenzo and literature 168 Luigi Pulci's Il Morgante 168 Angelo Poliziano's Stanzas for Giuliano de' Medici 169 The Renaissance on the streets-Popular entertainments and festivals in quattrocento Florence 169 Lorenzo and Pope Sixtus IV collide 171 The Pazzi Conspiracy-Murder in the cathedral 172 Florence at war with the pope 172 Lorenzo as "boss of the shop" 173 Money and art in Renaissance Florence 174 Competition and innovation in the arts 175 The realism of Pollaiuolo and Verrocchio 175 The idealism of Botticelli 176 Depicting the here and now-Ghirlandaio 177 Building for posterity 178 The spiritual mood in late quattrocento Florence 179 Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's "Oration on the Dignity of Man" 179 Considerations-Golden ages 180 Resources 181 Chapter 10: 1494: The Beginning of the Calamities of Italy 183 The Italian League unravels 184 Rodrigo Borgia becomes Pope Alexander VI 186 The French Invasion of 1494 187 Savonarola-The rise of the "little friar" from Ferrara 188 The "New Jerusalem"-The Florentine Republic renewed 189 Weepers, angry men, and ugly companions 190 The fiery end of Savonarola 190 Louis XII and the French Invasion of 1499 191 The meteoric career of Cesare Borgia 192 Julius II the "terrible" pope takes on Venice 194 The Holy League-A brief alliance born of mutual enmity 196 The Florentine Republic under Soderini gives way to Medici rule in 1512 196 Niccolo Machiavelli out of work 197 The Prince-A mirror for the Medici? 197 When virtu is not necessarily virtuous and fortuna is not always fortunate 198 The role of morality and religion in The Prince 199 Does Machiavelli advocate tyranny? 201 Considerations-Fortuna, providence or chance? 202 Resources 204 Chapter 11: Paradoxes of the High Renaissance: Art in a time of Turmoil 205 Leonardo-The pacifist who designed weapons for a prince 207 Mantua, Ferrara, Urbino-Small courts, big ambitions 209 Mantua-"The most beautiful chamber in the world" painted by Mantegna 209 Isabella d'Este's studiolo of her own 210 The Dukes of Ferrara celebrated in poetry and music 210 Urbino-The condottiero's refined court, library, and art collection 211 The Venetian innovators-Painters in a watery city dream of idyllic pastures 211 The visual poetry of Giorgione 212 Titian's bold colors, sensuality, triumphant images 213 The explosive genius of Michelangelo-Extreme piety and extreme paganism 213 The David-Bold symbol of the Florentine Republic 214 Pope Julius II-A second Caesar 215 Bramante tears down St. Peter's 216 Michelangelo paints a "terrible" ceiling 217 Raphael in Rome-A painter of sweet-faced Madonnas creates majestic rooms for a pope 218 The School of Athens-Antiquity alive and energized 219 The banker's pleasure palace, talking statues, and risque positions-The end of an era in Rome 219 Considerations-Terrible times and awesome art 220 Resources 221 Chapter 12: The 1527 Sack of Rome and its Aftermath: Courtiers and Courtesans in High Renaissance Literature 223 A new world order in the sixteenth century 225 The profligate papacy of Leo X, 1513-1521 225 Francesco Guicciardini's career as papal governor in the Romagna 227 The tragically indecisive Pope Clement VII 227 On the brink of disaster, 1526 228 The Sack 229 A traumatized Christendom takes stock 231 Baldassare Castiglione's instant bestseller 232 Contradictions and tensions within The Courtier 233 The Machiavellian courtier? 234 Gender-bending at court and the changing role of women 234 Courtiers, court ladies, and courtesans 235 Ariosto and Sannazaro's escapist fantasies 236 Considerations-Accepting defeat with grazia 237 Resources 238 Chapter 13: Reformations: Political, Religious, and Artistic Upheaval, 1530-1563 240 The last Florentine Republic, 1527-1530 241 The Medici principate established 242 The teenaged Cosimo becomes Duke of Florence 243 Michelangelo and the Medici, 1516-1534 243 Martin Luther-A German monk protests 244 Humanist origins of the Protestant Reformation-"Christian Humanism" 245 Catholic reformations before the Reformation 245 The church responds-Catholic versus Protestant 246 The Council of Trent, 1545-1563 247 The Vulgate Bible-"No one is to dare or presume to reject it under any pretext" 248 The Sacraments and the role of the priest re-affirmed 248 Social consequences of Trent 249 Clerical reform and full enclosure of nuns 249 Michelangelo in Rome, 1534-1564 250 Mannerism-Avant-garde art 252 The artist as courtier 252 The Lives of the Artists-Vasari invents art history 253 Benvenuto Cellini's Autobiography-The artist invents himself 254 Considerations-The sixteenth-century reformations put in perspective 256 Resources 258 Chapter 14: The "Imperial Renaissance": Italy during the Spanish Peace, 1559-1598 259 The Habsburgs-A spectacular matrimonial conglomerate 260 Keeping the troublesome republics subdued 262 The rule of Spanish viceroys 262 Pax hispanica 263 Learning that was not strictly academic 264 Print culture-Read all about it 265 The epic poetry of Torquato Tasso 265 The erotic poetry of Veronica Franco 266 Buffoons, faithful shepherds, and prima donnas-The birth of Renaissance theater 267 Italian words and music come together-Madrigals, motets, and masses 268 Architecture-Perfection of classical forms and experimentation 269 Palladio shapes western architecture 270 Rome gloriously rebuilt 270 Venetian masters-Titian's late style, Tintoretto, and Veronese 271 Opportunities for women artists-Sofonisba Anguissola and Lavinia Fontana 272 The anti-mannerists-Annibale, Agostino, and Ludovico Carracci 273 The Michelangelo from Caravaggio 273 Considerations-Was the late sixteenth century a Siglo de Oro for Italy? 275 Resources 276 Chapter 15: Celestial Revolutions: Heaven and Earth Collide at the Turn of the Seventeenth Century 278 Inquistions 280 The Roman Inquisition-Myth and reality 280 Jews and witches 281 The index of Prohibited books 282 Missionaries to the mezzogiorno-"The Indies down here" 283 The "new philosophy"-Natural philosophers try to read the book of nature 284 Italian scientific revolutions 285 A flowering of the natural sciences 286 The sciences put to work-The genius of engineers and artists 287 Anatomy-Physicians and artists look inside the human body 288 Astrology, astronomy, cosmology-The sixteenth-century view from Earth 289 Measuring the heavens-Mathematicians invade outer space 291 Galileo and the "new science" 292 Galileo takes a spyglass and turns it into telescope 293 The Starry Messenger-The Medici become moons and the scientist becomes a star 294 The conflict between the new science and religion 295 The trial of the century-Galileo before the Inquisition in 1633 297 Considerations-What would the ancient Greeks and Romans have said? 298 Resources 298 Epilogue: The End of the Renaissance? 301 Index 304 Images 1. St. Francis Master, St. Francis Renounces His Worldly Possessions, detail 1 2. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government, detail 20 3. Donatello, St. George, detail 37 4. Masolino da Panicale, The Founding of Santa Maria Maggiore 57 5. Piero della Francesca, Madonna del parto, della Madonna del Parto, Monterchi 79 6. Benozzo Gozzoli, Journey of the Magi, detail 99 7. Antonello da Messina, Virgin Annunciate 118 8. Vittore Carpaccio, The Miracle at the Rialto 138 9. Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, detail 163 10. Giorgione, The Tempest 183 11. Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man 205 12. Raphael, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione 223 13. Michelangelo, Last Judgment, detail 240 14. Caravaggio, Bacchus 259 15. Galileo, Sidereus nuncius 278 Maps Regions of Italy, Inside front cover 1.1 Principal Italian Communes c. 1250 7 2.1 Spread of the Black Death in Europe 23 2.2 Social Unrest in Europe During the Fourteenth Century 29 3.1 Education in Renaissance Italy 46 4.1 Western Schism (1378-1417) 68 6.1 Communes and Signories in Italy c. 1250 101 6.2 Communes and Signories in Italy c. 1450 101 6.3 Milanese Territory under the Visconti 105 7.1 Southern Italy and the Mediterranean c. 600 CE 121 8.1 The Early Settlement of Venice and Trade Routes Through the Mainland 141 8.2 Venice and the Eastern Mediterranean, 1140-1204 144 8.3 Venetian Merchant Fleets in the Fifteenth Century 151 10.1 The Five Major Italian States, 1494 185 10.2 The Papal States 195 12.1 The Empire of Charles V in Europe 224 14.1 Italy, 1559 261 15.1 Changing Concepts of the Cosmos 290 Tables Population of Italian cities c. 1300 11 Ancient texts in Greek: Some of the earliest dates they appear in Italy 50 Percentage of female saints 84

Product Details

  • publication date: 14/12/2010
  • ISBN13: 9780136054849
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 320
  • ID: 9780136054849
  • weight: 452
  • ISBN10: 0136054846

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