In 1988, the World University Service formulated the Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and the Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education. This seeks to promote and protect the right to education, the freedom to teach, and the freedom to pursue, develop and transmit knowledge. Since then WUS and Zed Books have published a series of reports on specific countries failures to deliver the right to education, abuses of the rights of people in the educational sector generally and infringments of academic freedom and university autonomy. Academic Freedom 4, the most recent volume in the series, offers an overview of the international standards in this field and spells out the obligations of states in guaranteeing the educational rights of citizens. The reports on specific countries show the wide range of obstacles standing in the way of a full realization of the right to education. Several chapters analyse how disinvestment in education has undermined this right, particularly for women and minorities.
In several parts of the world, structural adjustment programmes go hand in hand with stricter government control (including censorship) of universities, while in others, the control of education by religious groups has emerged as a new challenge, affecting both the quality of education and the level of tolerance in society. Other reports show why two factors, the existence of highly educated refugees and the globalization of the world economy, demand a much wider international recognition of educational qualifications.
Ximena Erazo is General Secretary of World University Service International (WUS) and Vice-Chair of the International Council of Voluntary Agencies (ICVA). Mike Kirkwood works with Worls University Service Canada. Frederick de Vlaming is a member of the Working Group on International Refugee Policies, Amsterdam.
Foreword - Frederick de Vlaming Part I: Perspectives 1. Core Contents of the Right to Education - Fons Coomans 2. Monitoring the Right to Education: A 'Violations' Approach - Audrey R. Chapman Part II: Africa 3. The Right to Education, Academic Freedom, and the African Charter and Human and Peoples' Rights - Gerd Oberleitner 4. Educational Rights in Kenya: Historical Perspective and Current Status - Omari Onyango and Monique Fouilloux 5. Academic Freedom and the Right to Education in Nigeria - Ogaga Ifowodo 6. The Impact of Zambia's Structural Adjustment Programmes on Education - James Matale and Anne L. Sikwibele Part III: Asia 7. Intellectuals, Dissidence and Academic Freedom in China - Daan Bronkhorst 8. Dynasties, Doctrines and Dangerous Thinking: Education and its Enemies in Central Asia - Edward A. Allworth 9. Academic Freedom and Educational Rights in Pakistan - Pervez Hoodbhoy Part IV: Latin America and the Caribbean 10. Structural Adjustment, Gender and Education in Central America - Maria Angelica Faune 11. Academic Freedom and Political Events in Guatemala - Raul Molina Mejia 12. Race and Educational Inequality in Brazil - Fulvia Rosemberg 13. Defending Educational Rights in Colombia - Alejandro Alvarez Gallego and Ce'sar Torres Ca'rdenas 14. Militarization and Privatization in Peru's Educational System: An Update - Carlos Varela and Sinesio Lopex Jimenez Part V: The Middle East and Europe 15. Academic Freedom in the Middle East: Institutional Legacies and Contemporary Predicaments - Steve Niva 16. Academic Freedom in Armenia - Krikor A. Tarkhanian 17. 'Fortress Europe' and the Professional Qualifications of 'Third Country Nationals' Hernan Rosenkranz and Ute Kowarzik Appendix: The Lima Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education. Index