This book describes the basic knowledge in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics necessary for understanding the principle and implementation of accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), also known as hybrid reactors.
Since hybrid reactors may contribute to future nuclear energy production, the book begins with a discussion of the general energy problem. It proceeds by developing the elementary physics of neutron reactors, including the basic nuclear physics involved. The book then presents computational methods, with special emphasis on Monte Carlo methods. It examines the specifics of ADSR, starting from the neutron spallation source to safety features. A thorough discussion is given on the size of hybrid reactors, which follows very different constraints from that of critical reactors. The possibility to optimize the source importance is examined in detail. The discussion of the fuel evolution follows with its relevance to safety and to the waste production and incineration. The conditions for having a constant reactivity over sufficiently long lapse of time are also discussed. The book also evaluates a number of practical designs that have been proposed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the examination of proposed and possible waste transmutation policies and the role which could be played by ADSR in this context. The potential advantage of the Thorium cycle is discussed as well as different scenarios that could be used to implement it.
INTRODUCTION THE ENERGY ISSUE World Energy Perspectives Renewable energies Nuclear Energy Costs The Possible Role of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors ELEMENTARY REACTOR THEORY Interaction of Neutrons with Nuclei Neutron Propagation Neutron Multiplying Assemblies Limiting Values Reactor Control Fuel Evolution Basics of Waste Transmutation ADSRS PRINCIPLES Properties of the Multiplying Medium PRACTICAL SIMULATION METHODS Neutron Reaction Data Files Deterministic Methods Monte-Carlo Codes Physics in MCNP MCNP in Practice Examples Fuel evolution THE NEUTRON SOURCE Interaction of Protons with Matter Alternative Primary Neutron Production Experimental Determination of the Energy Gain Two Stage Neutron Multipliers High Intensity Accelerators ADSR KINETICS REACTIVITY EVOLUTIONS Long Term Evolutions Short Term Reactivity Excursions FUEL REPROCESSING TECHNIQUES Basics of Reprocessing Wet Processes Dry Processes GENERIC PROPERTIES OF ADSRS The Homogeneous Spherical Reactor Parametric Study of Heterogeneous Systems WASTE INCINERATION The Thorium-Uranium Cycle Incineration GROUND LAYING PROPOSALS Solid Fuel Reactors Molten Salt Reactors Cost Estimates SCENARIOS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADSRS Experiments Demonstrators APPENDIX A: DEEP UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE Determining the Dose to the Population Accidental Intrusion Heat Production and Sizing of the Storage Site Geological Hazard An Underground Laboratory, What For? APPENDIX B: THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND THE RMBK REACTORS The RBMK-1000 Reactor Events leading to the accident The accident APPENDIX C: BASICS OF ACCELERATOR PHYSICS Linear Accelerators Cyclotrons Superconductive solutions Space Charge Limitations INDEX