This innovative book presents new research on the increasingly important need to account for the use of resources, and the dispersion of waste materials. It considers resource accounting both at the process level and at the materials level, and in addition offers policy suggestions for waste and resource accounting.
The book opens with an introduction to industrial metabolism and its various implications. It then goes on to examine resource accounting at the national and sectoral level, through the systematic application of the mass-balance principle to estimate materials losses at different stages of the production process. It then examines one cluster of industries (related to chlorine) in greater detail. At the process level the use of chemical process simulation software in the estimation of waste emissions is examined, specifically focusing on cases where emissions data is unavailable or unreliable. Finally it introduces, for the first time, a common single measure for evaluating and comparing process or sectoral resource and waste flows between time periods, between sectors and between regions and nations. This measure is known as exergy, and although not new in itself, it has never before been used systematically for these purposes. In conclusion the author summarizes the main problems of resource and waste accounting and offers some policy recommendations for the implementation of accounting for resources.
Accounting for Resources ,1 will be welcomed by environmental managers and scientists, economists, practitioners and government policymakers.
Robert U. Ayres, Novartis Professor (Emeritus) of Management and the Environment, INSEAD, France and Institute Scholar, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria and Leslie W. Ayres, Research Associate, Centre for Management of Environmental Resources, INSEAD, France
Contents: 1. Background: Industrial Metabolism and Materials Flow Analysis (MFA) 2. Agricultural Industries 3. Forest Industries 4. Extractive Materials: Fuels 5. Extractive Materials: Minerals and Metals 6. Chemical Industry Material Flows and Wastes: Inorganic Chemicals 7. Chemical Industry Material Flows and Wastes: Organic Chemicals 8. Lost Mass, Wastes and Toxic or Hazardous Emissions 9. Counting with Dollars: From Mass-Flow to Input-Output