Conflict, natural disasters and other difficult circumstances present major obstacles to achieving the Millennium Development Goal of providing universal primary education by 2015. Commonwealth ministers of education are committed to developing strategies to strengthen education programmes for preventing conflict and mitigating the impact of conflict and natural disasters on education in disrupted societies. This study focuses on sixteen Commonwealth countries in Africa, where the incidence of conflict is most easily seen, though many of the other problems discussed here have their parallels in other parts of the world, such as the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami. The publication reviews selected African experiences of education in * conflict situations * natural disasters * other difficult circumstances and elaborates on the role education plays * before emergencies occur, including its presence as a factor of exclusion * during crisis situations and the ensuing responses * afterwards in recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation.
This practical guide will assist policy-makers and others worldwide to better understand the complex issues and options that exist in decision-making; to share best practice in addressing situations arising from conflict, emergencies, and difficult circumstances; and to mitigate the effects on schooling while fostering a climate of tolerance, gender equality and diversity.
Foreword Message Preface 1. Introduction 2. Conflict Conflict in Africa Nature and Causes of Conflict and the Role of Education Education in Conflict Situations Education and Post-conflict Reconstruction 3. Natural Disasters Types of Emergencies Education and Natural Disasters 4. Difficult Circumstances Analysing Difficult Circumstances Addressing the Challenge of Providing Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction 5. The Role of External Agencies Relief and Development Selected Agencies Engaged in Education in Emergencies and Reconstruction 6. The Gender Dimension The Commonwealth Commitment to Gender Equality Differential Impact of Armed Conflict on Girls and Boys Male Marginalisation and Under-achievement of Boys in Education Gender and Delivery of Education to Refugees and IDPs The Gender Dimension of Education in Post-conflict Reconstruction Girls' Capacity-building and Participation in Decision-making Gender Mainstreaming in Education for Peace and Reconciliation Conclusion Recommendations 7. Conclusion Bibliography Appendices 1. The Mombasa Statement 2. Participants in the Mombasa Conference 3. Contacts