Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers

Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers

By: Woon Siong Gan (author)Hardback

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Description

The technology of acoustical imaging has advanced rapidly over the last sixty years, and now represents a sophisticated technique applied to a wide range of fields including non-destructive testing, medical imaging, underwater imaging and SONAR, and geophysical exploration. Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers introduces the basic physics of acoustics and acoustical imaging, before progressing to more advanced topics such as 3D and 4D imaging, elasticity theory, gauge invariance property of acoustic equation of motion and acoustic metamaterials. The author draws together the different technologies in sonar, seismic and ultrasound imaging, highlighting the similarities between topic areas and their common underlying theory. Key features: * Comprehensively covers all of the important applications of acoustical imaging. * Introduces the gauge invariance property of acoustic equation of motion, with applications in the elastic constants of isotropic solids, time reversal acoustics, negative refraction, double negative acoustical metamaterial and acoustical cloaking. * Contains up to date treatments on latest theories of sound propagation in random media, including statistical treatment and chaos theory. * Includes a chapter devoted to new acoustics based on metamaterials, a field founded by the author, including a new theory of elasticity and new theory of sound propagation in solids and fluids and tremendous potential in several novel applications. Covers the hot topics on acoustical imaging including time reversal acoustics, negative refraction and acoustical cloaking. Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers is a comprehensive reference on acoustical imaging and forms a valuable resource for engineers, researchers, senior undergraduate and graduate students.

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About Author

Woon Siong Gan is the Director of Acoustical Technologies Singapore Pte Ltd. He obtained his PhD in acoustics from Imperial College, London in 1969, and since then has been conducting research into and published several papers on acoustical imaging. In 1989 he founded Acoustical Technologies Singapore Pte Ltd, an R&D company involved in the development of ultrasound technologies especially in high frequencies acoustical imaging, and has several patents granted in scanning acoustical microscope (SAM) and surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices.

Contents

About the Author xv Foreword xvii 1 Introduction 1 2 Physics of Acoustics and Acoustical Imaging 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Sound Propagation in Solids 5 2.3 Use of Gauge Potential Theory to Solve Acoustic Wave Equations 7 2.4 Propagation of Finite Wave Amplitude Sound Wave in Solids 8 2.5 Nonlinear Effects Due to Energy Absorption 11 2.6 Gauge Theory Formulation of Sound Propagation in Solids 12 3 Signal Processing 15 3.1 Mathematical Tools in Signal Processing and Image Processing 15 3.2 Image Enhancement 23 3.3 Image Sampling and Quantization 24 3.4 Stochastic Modelling of Images 28 3.5 Beamforming 30 3.6 Finite-Element Method 32 3.7 Boundary Element Method 34 4 Common Methodologies of Acoustical Imaging 37 4.1 Introduction 37 4.2 Tomography 37 4.3 Holography 50 4.4 Pulse Echo and Transmission Modes 53 4.5 Acoustic Microscopy 59 5 Time-Reversal Acoustics and Superresolution 63 5.1 Introduction 63 5.2 Theory of Time-Reversal Acoustics 63 5.3 Application of TR to Medical Ultrasound Imaging 69 5.4 Application of Time-Reversal Acoustics to Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing 70 5.5 Application of TRA to Landmine or Buried Object Detection 80 5.6 Application of Time-Reversal Acoustics to Underwater Acoustics 86 6 Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 89 6.1 Application of Chaos Theory to Acoustical Imaging 89 6.2 Nonclassical Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 107 6.3 Modulation Method of Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging 116 6.4 Harmonic Imaging 121 7 High-Frequencies Acoustical Imaging 125 7.1 Introduction 125 7.2 Transducers 125 7.3 Electronic Circuitry 126 7.4 Software 127 7.5 Applications of High-Frequencies In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging System 127 7.6 System of 150 MHz Ultrasound Imaging of the Skin and the Eye 128 7.7 Signal Processing for the 150 MHz System 129 7.8 Electronic Circuits of Acoustical Microscope 135 8 Statistical Treatment of Acoustical Imaging 141 8.1 Introduction 141 8.2 Scattering by Inhomogeneities 142 8.3 Study of the Statistical Properties of the Wavefield 143 8.4 Continuum Medium Approach of Statistical Treatment 163 9 Nondestructive Testing 169 9.1 Defects Characterization 169 9.2 Automated Ultrasonic Testing 171 9.3 Guided Waves Used in Acoustical Imaging for NDT 176 9.4 Ultrasonic Technologies for Stress Measurement and Material Studies 178 9.5 Dry Contact or Noncontact Transducers 185 9.6 Phased Array Transducers 186 10 Medical Ultrasound Imaging 195 10.1 Introduction 195 10.2 Physical Principles of Sound Propagation 196 10.3 Imaging Modes 198 10.4 B-scan Instrumentation 207 10.5 C-scan Instrumentation 217 10.6 Tissue Harmonic Imaging 220 10.7 Elasticity Imaging 228 10.8 Colour Doppler Imaging 244 10.9 Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound 250 10.10 3D Ultrasound Medical Imaging 254 10.11 Development Trends 258 11 Underwater Acoustical Imaging 263 11.1 Introduction 263 11.2 Principles of Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 264 11.3 Principles of Some Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 270 11.4 Characteristics of Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems 273 11.5 Imaging Modalities 275 11.6 A Few Representative Underwater Acoustical Imaging System 278 11.7 Application of Robotics to Underwater Acoustical Imaging 287 12 Geophysical Exploration 289 12.1 Introduction 289 12.2 Applications of Acoustical Holography to Seismic Imaging 290 12.3 Examples of Field Experiments 291 12.4 Laboratory Modelling 297 12.5 Techniques of Image Processing and Enhancement 297 12.6 Computer Reconstruction 298 12.7 Other Applications of Seismic Holography 303 12.8 Signal Processing in Seismic Holography 303 12.9 Application of Diffraction Tomography to Seismic Imaging 310 12.10 Conclusions 322 13 Quantum Acoustical Imaging 325 13.1 Introduction 325 13.2 Optical Piezoelectric Transducers for Generation of Nanoacoustic Waves 325 13.3 Optical Detection of Nanoacoustic Waves 329 13.4 Nanoimaging/Quantum Acoustical Imaging 329 13.5 Generation and Amplification of Terahertz Acoustic Waves 334 13.6 Theory of Electron Inversion and Phonon Amplification Produced in the Active SL by Optical Pumping 336 13.7 Source for Quantum Acoustical Imaging 339 13.8 Phonons Entanglement for Quantum Acoustical Imaging 339 13.9 Applications of Quantum Acoustical Imaging 340 14 Negative Refraction, Acoustical Metamaterials and Acoustical Cloaking 343 14.1 Introduction 343 14.2 Limitation of Veselago s Theory 344 14.3 Multiple Scattering Approach to Perfect Acoustic Lens 348 14.4 Acoustical Cloaking 354 14.5 Acoustic Metamaterial with Simultaneous Negative Mass Density and Negative Bulk Modulus 359 14.6 Acoustical Cloaking Based on Nonlinear Coordinate Transformations 363 14.7 Acoustical Cloaking of Underwater Objects 366 14.8 Extension of Double Negativity to Nonlinear Acoustics 367 15 New Acoustics Based on Metamaterials 369 15.1 Introduction 369 15.2 New Acoustics and Acoustical Imaging 370 15.3 Background of Phononic Crystals 371 15.4 Theory of Phononic Crystals The Multiple Scattering Theory (MST) 372 15.5 Negative Refraction Derived from Gauge Invariance (Coordinates Transformation) An Alternative Theory of Negative Refraction 376 15.6 Reflection and Transmission of Sound Wave at Interface of Two Media with Different Parities 380 15.7 Theory of Diffraction by Negative Inclusion 381 15.8 Extension to Theory of Diffraction by Inclusion of General Form of Mass Density and Bulk Modulus Manipulated by Predetermined Direction of Sound Propagation 394 15.9 A New Approach to Diffraction Theory A Rigorous Theory Based on the Material Parameters 394 15.10 Negative Refraction Derived from Reflection Invariance (Right-Left Symmetry) A New Approach to Negative Refraction 395 15.11 A Unified Theory for Isotropy Invariance, Time Reversal Invariance and Reflection Invariance 397 15.12 Application of New Acoustics to Acoustic Waveguide 397 15.13 New Elasticity 398 15.14 Nonlinear Acoustics Based on Metamaterial 399 15.15 Ultrasonic Attenuation in Acoustic Metamaterial 401 15.16 Applications of Phononic Crystal Devices 403 15.17 Comparison of the Significance of Role Played by Gauge Theory and MST in Metamaterial A Sum-up of the Theories of Metamaterial 404 15.18 Impact of New Acoustics Compared with Nonlinear Acoustics 404 15.19 Conclusions 404 References 405 16 Future Directions and Future Technologies 407 Index 409

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/06/2012
  • ISBN13: 9780470661604
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 426
  • ID: 9780470661604
  • weight: 974
  • ISBN10: 0470661607

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