As a bishop in a time of persecution and schism Cyprian of Carthage became the most prominent Latin theologian of the third century. Whereas his concept of the Church and his theology of unity have become influential and have been studied intensely, his concept of paraenesis which is the main thrust of most of his writings has been largely ignored. Cyprian was the first Roman aristocrat to become a bishop and thus to take up responsibility for a growing Church. He made wide use of the traditions available to him, the Latin Christian tradition as well as the Roman philosophical tradition. Tertullian and Minucius on the one hand and Seneca on the other are most prominent among those he learned from. Though he deliberately and intensely borrowed from his Christian and non-Christian predecessors, Cyprian stands as a theologian in his own right. The present study offers a thorough analysis of the main aspects of Cyprian's concept of paraenesis and shows how in his paraenesis the inculturation of the Christian gospel into a Roman context is reflected.