Although scientific community has been aware of the adaptive processes in biological systems for some time, its recognition as a discipline has been fairly recent. It has been seen that a gradual adaptation to repeat exposures to heat, cold, hypoxia or exercise increases the resistance of the organism not only to each of these stresses but also to other potentially harmful conditions. Such protective cross-effects can be utilized in therapy and improved patient care. It becomes immediately obvious that we also need to understand the molecular and cellular processes that afford such an adaptation. Present series on "Adaptation Biology and Medicine" will attempt to cover new developments in our understandings of the biology of adaptation and its application in medicine. This volume is based on the findings presented and discussed in the IV World Congress of the International Society for Adaptive Medicine held in Chandigarh, India.