Addiction Research Methods (Addiction Press)

Addiction Research Methods (Addiction Press)

By: Peter G. Miller (editor), Dr. Peter M. Miller (editor), John Strang (editor)Paperback

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Description

Addiction Research Methods is a comprehensive handbook for health professionals, policy-makers and researchers working and training in the field of addiction. The book provides a clear, comprehensive and practical guide to research design, methods and analysis within the context of the field of alcohol and other drugs. The reader is introduced to fundamental principles and key issues; and is orientated to available sources of information and key literature.

About Author

Peter G Miller is NHMRC Howard Florey Fellow in the School of Psychology at Deakin University, Australia. He is Commissioning Editor for the journal, Addiction. John Strang is Professor of the Addictions and Director of the National Addiction Centre, University of London. He is also Clinical Director of the addictions treatment services at the South London & Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Peter M Miller is Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Addictive Behaviors.

Contents

List of contributors ix Acknowledgements xiii 1 Introduction 1Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Where to start? 1 1.3 Does theory matter? 2 1.4 The literature review 3 1.5 Which method suits my question is a screwdriver better than a saw? 4 1.6 Focus and structure of the book 5 1.7 Terminology 6 1.8 The need for a wider perspective and more careful selection of study design 8 Section I: Research Fundamentals 2 Reliability and validity 11Gerhard Buhringer and Monika Sassen 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 Background: Reliability and validity in addiction research 11 2.3 Reliability and validity in addiction research 16 2.4 Strengthening the quality of your results and conclusions: A brief checklist to improve reliability and validity 19 2.5 Summary 24 3 Sampling strategies for addiction research 27Lisa Kakinami and Kenneth R. Conner 3.1 Introduction 27 3.2 Probability sampling 27 3.3 Non-probability sampling 32 3.4 Qualitative sampling 36 3.5 Selecting your sampling approach 37 3.6 Technical considerations 37 3.7 Conclusion 40 4 Experimental design issues in addiction research 43Robert West 4.1 Introduction 43 4.2 What constitutes an experiment? 43 4.3 Is an experiment appropriate? 44 4.4 What kind of experimental design? 44 4.5 What intervention and comparison conditions? 48 4.6 What target population and recruitment strategy? 50 4.7 What sample size? 52 4.8 What outcome measures? 53 4.9 What statistical analyses? 55 4.10 Conclusions 56 5 Qualitative methods and theory in addictions research 59Tim Rhodes and Ross Coomber 5.1 Introduction 59 5.2 Theory 59 5.3 A recurring debate 62 5.4 Principles for practice 63 5.5 Data generation 64 5.6 Analysis 70 5.7 Conclusions 73 6 Ethical issues in alcohol, other drugs and addiction-related research 79Peter G. Miller, Adrian Carter and Wayne Hall 6.1 Introduction 79 6.2 Key concepts 79 6.3 Major ethical frameworks 80 6.4 Addiction-specific ethical issues 83 6.5 Writing an ethics application 87 6.6 Ethical processes in different countries 87 6.7 Influence of funding body 88 6.8 Ethical dissemination 89 6.9 Conclusion 89 Section II: Basic Toolbox 7 Surveys and questionnaire design 97Lorraine T. Midanik and Krista Drescher-Burke 7.1 Introduction 97 7.2 Brief history 97 7.3 Survey research designs 98 7.4 Advantages and limitations of survey research designs 99 7.5 Modes of data collection 100 7.6 Questionnaire design 101 7.7 Piloting the questionnaire 104 7.8 Technological assistance 105 7.9 Common challenges 106 8 Interviews 109Barbara S. McCrady, Benjamin Ladd, Leah Vermont and Julie Steele 8.1 Introduction 109 8.2 Why interviews? 109 8.3 Reliability and validity of self-reported information 110 8.4 Interviewing skills 112 8.5 Types of interviews 116 8.6 Types of interview data 118 8.7 Technological resources 120 8.8 Summary 120 9 Scales for research in the addictions 127Shane Darke 9.1 Introduction 127 9.2 Screening instruments 128 9.3 Frequency of substance use 130 9.4 Multi-dimensional scales 133 9.5 Dependence 135 9.6 Psychopathology 139 9.7 Summary 143 10 Biomarkers of alcohol and other drug use 147Scott H. Stewart, Anton Goldmann, Tim Neumann and Claudia Spies 10.1 Introduction 147 10.2 Uses of state biomarkers in research 147 10.3 General principles when considering biomarkers 149 10.4 Summary 156 11 Quantitative data analysis 163Jim Lemon, Louisa Degenhardt, Tim Slade and Katherine Mills 11.1 Introduction 163 11.2 Imagining data planning the study 163 11.3 Collecting data gathering the measurements 165 11.4 Organising data structuring the measurements 166 11.5 Describing data what do the data look like? 167 11.6 Manipulating data 171 11.7 Relationships within the data 173 11.8 Interpreting relationships within the data 177 11.9 Conclusion and exercises 178 Section III: Real World Research Methods 12 Applied research methods 187David Best and Ed Day 12.1 Introduction 187 12.2 Auditing clinical activity in the city 189 12.3 Needs assessment 190 12.4 Qualitative research approaches 192 12.5 Evaluation research 193 12.6 The audit cycle 197 12.7 Measuring outcomes in applied settings 197 12.8 Overview and conclusions 198 13 Conducting clinical research 201Jalie A. Tucker and Cathy A. Simpson 13.1 Conducting clinical research 201 13.2 Discussion and conclusions: The role of the practitioner-researcher 211 Section IV: Biological Methods 14 Psychopharmacology 223Jason White and Nick Lintzeris 14.1 Introduction 223 14.2 Psychopharmacology: drugs, behaviour, physiology and the brain 223 14.3 Measuring drug effects 226 14.4 Human drug self-administration 229 14.5 Drug withdrawal and craving 231 14.6 Summary 232 15 Imaging 235Alastair Reid and David Nutt 15.1 Introduction 235 15.2 Introduction to neuroimaging 235 15.3 Imaging techniques 235 15.4 Image analysis 241 15.5 Some considerations when setting up an imaging study 244 16 Genes, genetics, genomics and epigenetics 249David Ball and Irene Guerrini 16.1 Introduction 249 16.2 Animal studies 252 16.3 Quantitative genetics 254 16.4 Molecular genetics 256 16.5 Why bother? 263 16.6 An addiction gene 263 16.7 Ethics 264 16.8 Concluding remarks 264 17 Animal models 269Leigh V. Panlilio, Charles W. Schindler and Steven R. Goldberg 17.1 Introduction 269 17.2 Basic principles of behaviour: Reinforcement 269 17.3 Basic principles of behaviour: Effects of environmental cues 270 17.4 Drug self-administration: Simple schedules 270 17.5 Drug self-administration: Using dose effect curves to assess the effects of treatments 271 17.6 Drug self-administration: Measuring the reinforcing effects of drugs 271 17.7 Drug self-administration: Modelling the effects of environmental cues with second-order schedules 273 17.8 Drug self-administration: Reinstatement 275 17.9 Drug self-administration: Modelling the uncontrolled and compulsive nature of addiction 275 17.10 Intracranial drug self-administration and intracranial electrical self-stimulation 276 17.11 Drug self-administration: Advantages and disadvantages 278 17.12 Conditioned place preference 278 17.13 Drug discrimination 279 17.14 Locomotor activity 279 17.15 Adjunct procedures 281 17.16 Integration of behavioural and neuroscience techniques 281 Section V: Specialist Methods 18 Understanding contexts: Methods and analysis in ethnographic research on drugs 287Jeremy Northcote and David Moore 18.1 Introduction 287 18.2 Tracing the history of ethnographic drug research 288 18.3 Designing ethnographic research 289 18.4 Getting started 290 18.5 Collecting data 292 18.6 Analysing ethnographic data 293 18.7 Producing ethnographic texts 294 18.8 Conclusion 295 19 Epidemiology 299Mark Stoov'e and Paul Dietze 19.1 Introduction 299 19.2 Origins of epidemiology 299 19.3 Definitions and uses of epidemiology in alcohol and other drug research 299 19.4 Descriptive epidemiology 300 19.5 Epidemiological research designs 301 19.6 Analysis of case-control and cohort studies 308 19.7 Experimental study designs 310 19.8 Potential sources of error in epidemiology 311 19.9 Summary 314 20 Meta-analysis: Summarising findings on addiction intervention effects 319John W. Finney and Anne Moyer 20.1 Introduction 319 20.2 Overview of meta-analytic methods 319 20.3 Issues in meta-analyses of addiction interventions 327 20.4 Limitations 331 20.5 Conclusion 331 21 Drug trend monitoring 337Paul Griffiths and Jane Mounteney 21.1 Introduction 337 21.2 Point of departure divergent policy perspectives, difficulties in definition and temporal relevance 337 21.3 International, national and local drug monitoring mechanisms 338 21.4 Challenges in monitoring illicit drug use 339 21.5 An overview of common information sources and some of their limitations 341 21.6 Issues for the interpretation and analysis of data 345 21.7 Mixed methods 347 21.8 Triangulation 347 21.9 Reliability and validity 348 21.10 Reflections in a broken mirror: Pragmatic and imperfect solutions to an intractable problem 349 22 Drug policy research 355Jonathan P. Caulkins and Rosalie Liccardo Pacula 22.1 Introduction 355 22.2 Methods for quantitatively comparing an intervention s benefits and costs 356 22.3 Issues that arise in quantifying an intervention s benefits and costs 360 22.4 Methods for estimating an intervention s effects 362 22.5 Modelling methods 365 22.6 Summary 366 Section VI: Beyond Research 23 Concluding remarks 375Peter G. Miller, John Strang and Peter M. Miller 23.1 Publishing addiction science 375 23.2 Final thoughts 376 Index 377

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781405176637
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 400
  • ID: 9781405176637
  • weight: 778
  • ISBN10: 1405176636

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