Addiction to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is one of the major public health issues of our time. In the United States, one in five deaths is the result of addictive drug use. This innovative book critically examines drug addiction treatment in the United States. It explores specific challenges (scientific, medical, social, and legal) to reaching the goal that treatment for drug addiction should be as accessible as treatments for diseases of the heart, liver, and lungs which often result from the use of addictive drugs. These essays, written by leaders in addiction science, medicine, and health policy, present diverse and often opposing points of view to foster thought and discussion.The book consists of three parts. Part I examines the emerging science and theories that underlie the development of specific models for treating addiction to illicit opioids and stimulants, alcohol, tobacco, and prescription drugs. Part II explores the complications raised by the diversity of those with addictions, ranging from pregnant women who use intravenous drugs, young men who abuse methamphetamines, youths who smoke cigarettes, and adults who abuse alcohol to those who smoke marijuana or abuse prescription drugs. Part III provides a detailed analysis of health care, social, and policy issues that challenge our views about addiction and its treatment. It addresses controversial topics such as whether addiction should be considered a disease or a behavior, whether addiction should be handled as a criminal offense or treated as a public health problem, and whether stigmatizing addiction is helpful or not. Throughout the book, compelling examples of addiction art explore the human side of addiction through the lens of visual artists' stunning insights into addiction and recovery. Addiction Treatment provides a solid foundation for understanding addiction as a treatable illness and for establishing a framework for effective treatment in the twenty-first century.