The essays concentrate on Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, where less than ten per cent of the labour force work in the formal sector, as compared with some 20 to 40 per cent in the 1960s. The labour force is growing at a faster rate than the creation of new jobs, leading to increased informalization of the economy, but there is a lack of institutions to implement any economic policy reform or to provide the necessary supply response to such policies. Public sector workers have been reduced but there have not been enough jobs to compensate in the rest of the formal sector; meanwhile, the education and training institutions have difficulty in providing the skills needed for the restructured markets. The consensus of opinion in these articles is that the lack of institutions, of democratic policy making, and of consultation among major social groups has seriously undermined the implementation of reform policies.
North America: ILO/Brookings Institution
Introduction and overview, Willem van der Geest and Rolph van der Hoeven; the missing institutions of Africa's adjusted labour markets, Rolph van der Hoeven and Willem van der Geest; adjustment, employment and labour market institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, Willem van der Geest and Ganeshan Wignaraja; employment and labour markets during adjustment - the case of Kenya, Gerrishon H. Ikiara and Njuguna S. Ngund'u; employment and labour markets during adjustment - the case of Uganda, Germina Ssemogerere; employment and labour markets during adjustment - the case of Zambia, V. Seshamani and E.C. Kaunga; labour markets and employment during ESAP - the case of Zimbabwe, Godfrey Kanyenze; structural adjustment and labour markets - the case of Malawi, Ephraim Chirwa and Wycliffe Chilowa.