The book focuses on advanced characterization methods for thin-film solar cells that have proven their relevance both for academic and corporate photovoltaic research and development. After an introduction to thin-film photovoltaics, highly experienced experts report on device and materials characterization methods such as electroluminescence analysis, capacitance spectroscopy, and various microscopy methods. In the final part of the book simulation techniques are presented which are used for ab-initio calculations of relevant semiconductors and for device simulations in 1D, 2D and 3D.
Building on a proven concept, this new edition also covers thermography, transient optoelectronic methods, and absorption and photocurrent spectroscopy.
Daniel Abou-Ras is senior scientist at the Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany. He obtained his PhD at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. In 2005, he was awarded the MRS Graduate Student Gold Award at the MRS Spring Meeting. His research interests are correlative approaches in scanning as well as transmission electron microscopy, mainly applied on semiconductor devices. Thomas Kirchartz is professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the University Duisburg-Essen and head of the Division for Organic and Hybrid Solar Cells at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research 5 ? Photovoltaics at the Research Center Julich, Germany. Previously he was Junior Research Fellow in the Department of Physics at Imperial College London, UK. He obtained his degree in Electrical Engineering and Information Technology from the University of Stuttgart, Germany, in 2006 and his PhD from the RWTH Aachen, Germany, in 2009. Uwe Rau is full professor at the Faculty Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the RWTH Aachen, Germany, since 2007 and head of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research 5 ? Photovoltaics at the Research Center Julich, Germany. He obtained his PhD 1991 from the University Tubingen and was scientific group leader from 1995?2007 at the Universities of Bayreuth and Stuttgart.
PART I. Introduction INTRODUCTION TO THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS Introduction The Photovoltaic Principle Functional Layers in Thin-Film Solar Cells Comjparison of Various Thin-Film Solar-Cell Types Conclusions PART II. Device Characterization FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Introduction Current/Voltage Curves Quantum-Efficiency Measurements ELECTROLUMINESCENCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR CELLS AND SOLAR MODULES Introduction Basics Spectrally Resolved EL Spatially Resolved EL of c-Si Solar Cells EL Imaging of Thin-Film Solar Cells and Modules Electromodulated Luminescence under Illumination CAPACITANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Introduction Admittance Basics Sample Requirements Instrumentation CV Profiling and the Depletion Approximation Admittance Response of Deep States The Influence of Deep States on CV Profiles Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy Admittance Spectroscopy Drive-Level Capacitance Profiling Photocapacitance The Meyer-Neldel Rule Spatial Inhomogeneities and Interface States Metastability TIME-OF-FLIGHT ANALYSIS Introduction Fundamentals of TOF Measurements Experimental Details Analysis of TOF Results TRANSIENT OPTOELECTRONIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Introduction Measurement Setup Charge Extraction and Transient Photovoltage CE with Linearly Increased Voltage Time-Delayed Collection Field Method STEADY-STATE PHOTOCARRIER GRATING METHOD Introduction Basic Analysis of SSPG and Photocurrent Response Experimental Setup Data Analysis Results DOS Determination Data Collection by Automization and Combination with other Experiments Summary PART III. Materials Characterization ABSORPTION AND PHOTOCURRENT SPECTROSCOPY WITH HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE Introduction Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY Introduction Theory Ellipsometry Instrumentation Data Analysis Spectroscopic Ellipsometry forThin-Film Photovoltaics Summary and Outlook CHARACTERIZING THE LIGHT-TRAPPING PROPERTIES OF TEXTURED SURFACES WITH SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY Introduction How Does a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope Work? The Role of Evanescent Modes for Light Trapping Analysis of Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Images by Fast Fourier Transformation Investigation of Individua lWaveguide Modes Light Propagation inThin-Film Solar Cells Investigated with Dual-Probe SNOM Conclusion PHOTOLUMINESCENCE ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Introduction Experimental Issues Basic Transitions Case Studies ELECTRON-SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS SILICON (a-Si:H) Introduction Basics of ESR How to Measure ESR The g Tensor and Hyperfine Interaction in Disordered Solids Discussion of Selected Results Alternative ESR Detection Concluding Remarks SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY ON INORGANIC THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS Introduction Experimental Background Selected Applications Summary ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ON THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS Introduction Scanning Electron Microscopy Transmission Electron Microscopy Sample Preparation Techniques X-RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ON MATERIALS FOR THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Introduction Diffraction of X-Rays and Neutron by Matter Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) Neutron Diffraction of Absorber Materials for Thin-Film Solar Cells Anomalous Scattering of Synchrotron X-Rays IN SITU REAL-TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN-FILM GROWTH Introduction Real-Time In Situ Characterization Techniques for Thin-Film Growth X-Ray Methods for Real-Time Growth Analysis Light Scattering and Reflection Summary RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY ON THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS Introduction Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy Vibrational Modes in Crystalline Materials Experimental Considerations Characterization of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Materials Conclusions SOFT X-RAY AND ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY: A UNIQUE "TOOL CHEST" TO CHARACTERIZE THE CHEMICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SURFACES AND INTERFACES Introduction Charact