Primarily, this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration, and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years, work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be disposed of; the implications of a carbon tax on electricity pricing are considered. In presenting this wide survey of gas turbine cycles for power generation, the author calls on both his academic experience (at Cambridge and Liverpool Universities, the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT and Penn State University) and his industrial work (primarily with Rolls Royce, plc). The book will be essential reading for final years and masters students in mechanical engineering, and for practicing engineers.
Sir John Horlock is an authority on turbomachinery and power plants and his books on axial compressors, axial turbines, actuator disk theory, combined heat and power and combined power plants are widely used and cited. He founded Whittle Laboratory at Cambridge in 1973 and acted as its first Director. He was the Vice-Chancellor firstly at Salford University and subsequently of the Open University. Sir John has been an advisor to Government and industry for forty years and has been a non-executive director of several UK companies. He was recently Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Society and was knighted for services to science, engineering and education in 1996.
Preface; Notation; Chapter 1. A brief review of power generation thermodynamics; 1.1. Introduction; 1.2. Criteria for the performance of power plants; 1.2.1. Efficiency of a closed circuit gas turbine plant; 1.2.2. Efficiency of an open circuit gas turbine plant; 1.2.3. Heat rate; 1.2.4. Energy utilisation factor; 1.3. Ideal (Carnot) power plant performance; 1.4. Limitations of other cycles; 1.5. Modifications of gas turbine cycles to achieve higher thermal efficiency; References; Chapter 2. Reversibility and availability; 2.1. Introduction; 2.2. Reversibility, availability and exergy; 2.2.1. Flow in the presence of an environment at T0 (not involving chemical reaction); 2.2.2. Flow with heat transfer at temperature T; 2.3. Exergy flux; 2.3.1. Application of the exergy flux equation to a closed cycle; 2.3.2. The relationships between [xi], [sigma] and / CR, / Q; 2.4. The maximum work output in a chemical reaction at T0; 2.5. The adiabatic combustion process; 2.6. The work output and rational efficiency of an open circuit gas turbine; 2.7. A final comment on the use of exergy; References; Chapter 3 Basic gas turbine cycles; 3.1. Introduction; 3.2. Air standard cycles (uncooled); 3.2.1. Reversible cycles; 126.96.36.199. The reversible simple (Joule - Brayton) cycle, [CHT]R; 188.8.131.52. The reversible recuperative cycle [CHTX]R; 184.108.40.206. The reversible reheat cycle [CHTHT]R.