Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides (Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics 46)
By: Xingcun Colin Tong (author)Hardback
2 - 4 weeks availability
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, decreased interconnect delays, resistance to electromagnetic interference, and reduced crosstalk when integrated into standard electronic circuits.
Integrated waveguide optics represents a truly multidisciplinary field of science and engineering, with continued growth requiring new developments in modeling, further advances in materials science, and innovations in integration platforms. In addition, the processing and fabrication of these new devices must be optimized in conjunction with the development of accurate and precise characterization and testing methods. Students and professionals in materials science and engineering will find Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides to be an invaluable reference for meeting these research and development goals.
Preface Abbreviations 1 Fundamentals and design guides for optical waveguides Abstract 1.1 State of the art and challenges 1.1.1 Rationale and challenges of optical interconnects to electronic circuits 1.1.2 Evolution of optical interconnects 188.8.131.52 Fiber-based optical interconnects 184.108.40.206 Optical interconnects overlaid on PCB 220.127.116.11 Inter-chip interconnects with board-embedded waveguides 18.104.22.168 Free-space optoelectronic interconnects 22.214.171.124 Optical interconnects to electronic chips 1.1.3 Waveguide components and integration technologies 126.96.36.199 Light sources 188.8.131.52 Characteristics of VCSELs 184.108.40.206 Photodetectors 220.127.116.11 Electronics 18.104.22.168 Optical waveguides for short-range optical interconnects 22.214.171.124 Micro-optical coupling elements 126.96.36.199 Integration and packaging 1.2 Fundamental theory and design methodology 1.2.1 Classification of optical waveguides 1.2.2 Fundament waveguide theory 1.2.3 Optical waveguide design methodology 1.3 Waveguide materials selection and fabrication techniques 1.4 Environmental compliance of optical waveguide materials 1.5 Summary Reference 2 Characterization methodologies of optical waveguides Abstract 2.1 Geometrical inspection 2.2 Reflective index measurements 2.2.1 Reflectometry and ellipsometry 2.2.2 Surface plasmon resonance 2.2.3 Prism coupling 2.2.4 Propagation-mode near-field technique 2.2.5 Refracted near-field technique 2.2.6 M-line spectroscopy 2.3 Coupling techniques 2.3.1 Prism coupling method 2.3.2 End-coupling method 2.3.3 Lunch and tapered-coupling method 2.3.4 Grating coupling method 2.4 Optical loss 2.4.1 Propagation losses by radiation 2.4.2 Propagation losses by absorption and mode conversion 2.4.3 Propagation losses by diffusion 2.4.4 Measurement of propagation losses 2.5 Optoelectronic characterization 2.5.1 Optical power meters 2.5.2 Optical time-domain reflectometers 2.5.3 Spectrum analyzers 2.5.4 Eye diagrams 2.6 Electro-optic effects 2.7 Thermo-optic effects 2.8 Acousto-optic effects 2.9 Non-linear optic effects 2.9.1 Self-phase modulation 2.9.2 Cross-phase modulation 2.9.3 Four-wave mixing 2.9.4 Stimulated Raman Scattering 2.9.5 Stimulated brillouin scattering 2.10 Reliability evaluation 2.10.1 Failure modes and mechanisms 2.10.2 Reliability qualifications Reference 3 Optoelectronic devices integrated with optical waveguides Abstract 3.1 Optoelectronic theory and demonstration 3.2 Light emission devices 3.2.1 Light emitting diodes 3.2.2 Lasers 3.3 Optical modulators and drives 3.4 Optical detectors 3.4.1 Photoconductors 3.4.2 Photodiodes 3.4.3 Photodetectors 188.8.131.52 Hetero-interface photodetectors 184.108.40.206 Travelling-wave photodetectors 220.127.116.11 Resonant-cavity photodetectors 18.104.22.168 Phototransistors 3.5 Optical receivers 3.5.1 Transimpedance amplifiers 3.5.2 Clocked sense amplifier and the receiver of minimal change 3.6 Optical pathways 3.6.1 Free-space approaches 3.6.2 Guided wave approaches 22.214.171.124 POF ribbons 126.96.36.199 Imaging fiber bundles 188.8.131.52 On-chip rigid waveguides 3.6.3 Reconfigurable optical pathways 3.6.4 Guided wave versus free space optics 3.7 Optoelectronic device hybridization and integration 3.7.1 Bonding techniques 3.7.2 Monolithic integration 3.7.3 Silicon based light emission 3.7.4 Multifunctional device 3.8 Nanomaterials for optoelectronic devices Reference 4 Optical fibers Abstract 4.1 Historical perspective 4.2 Fiber optical principles 4.2.1 Fiber modes 4.2.2 Dispersive properties 4.2.3 Type of optical fibers 4.3 Fiber materials 4.3.1 Glasses 4.3.2 Plastic optical fibers 4.3.3 Photonic crystal fibers 4.3.4 Nano-fibers 4.4 Fiber fabrication 4.4.1 Purifying silica 4.4.2 Drawing the fiber 4.4.3 Vapor deposition techniques 4.4.4 Joining fibers 4.5 Optical fiber cables 4.5.1 Cabling environments 4.5.2 Fiber coating 4.5.3 Basic cable construction 4.5.4 Indoor cables 4.5.5 Air blown fiber 4.5.6 Outdoor cables 4.5.7 Undersea cables 4.6 Summary Reference 5 Semiconductor waveguides Abstract 5.1 Fundamental theory 5.1.1 Crystal structure 5.1.2 Energy band structure 5.1.3 III-V compound semiconductors 5.1.4 Quantum structure 5.1.5 Superlattice heterostructure 5.2 Semiconductor materials and fabrication process for waveguides 5.2.1 Silicon waveguides 5.2.2 Gallium arsenide waveguides 5.2.3 InAs quantum dots 5.3 Quantum-well technology 5.3.1 Characterization of quantum well 5.3.2 Quantum well intermixing 5.3.3 Micromachining 5.4 Doped semiconductor waveguides 5.5 Semiconductor nanomaterials for waveguides 5.6 Summary Reference 6 Silicon-on-insulator waveguides Abstract 6.1 Silicon photonics 6.2 Silicon-on-insulator materials 6.2.1 Silicon-on-silica 6.2.2 Silicon-on-sapphire 6.2.3 Silicon-on-nitride 6.2.4 Other perspective materials 6.3 Silicon-on-insulator technology 6.3.1 Ion implantation and damage recovery 6.3.2 Dopant diffusion in bulk silicon 6.4 Silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures 6.4.1 Large single mode waveguides 6.4.2 Strip nano-waveguides 6.5 Fabrication techniques of SOI waveguides 6.5.1 Wafer fabrication 6.5.2 Waveguide fabrication 6.6 Thallium-doped SOI rib waveguides 6.7 Indium-doped SOI rib waveguides 6.8 SOI waveguide applications 6.8.1 Type of SOI waveguides 6.8.2 Low-loss SOI waveguides 6.8.3 Linear applications 6.8.4 Nonlinear applications 6.9 Summary Reference 7 Glass waveguides Abstract 7.1 Glass structure and composition 7.2 Silica glass waveguides 7.2.1 Material processing technology 7.2.2 Refractive index profiling of planar waveguides 7.2.3 Silica waveguide devices 7.3 Silicon oxynitride waveguides 7.3.1 Material processing technology 7.3.2 SiON waveguide design and fabrication 7.3.3 SiON waveguide devices 7.4 Ion-exchanged glass waveguides 7.4.1 The ion-exchange techniques 7.4.2 Optical property of ion-exchanged waveguides 7.4.3 Ion-exchange systems in glass waveguides 7.4.4 Applications of ion-exchanged glass waveguides 7.5 Sol-gel glass waveguides 7.6 Laser-written waveguides 7.7 Glass waveguide lasers 7.8 Summary Reference 8 Electro-optic waveguides Abstract 8.1 Physical effects in electro-optic waveguides 8.2 Electro-optic materials and modulators 8.2.1 Electro-optic materials in photonics 8.2.2 Electro-optic modulation in waveguides 8.2.3 Alternative electro-optic materials 8.3 Lithium niobate waveguides 8.3.1 Lithium niobate crystal 8.3.2 fabrication process of lithium niobate waveguides 8.3.3 Erbium-doped lithium niobate waveguides 8.4 Lithium tantalite waveguides 8.5 Barium titanate waveguides 8.6 Electro-optic polymer materials and formed waveguides 8.6.1 Electro-optic polymer materials 8.6.2 Electro-optic polymer waveguides 8.7 Liquid crystal electro-optic waveguides 8.8 Strained silicon as an electro-optic material 8.9 Summary Reference 9 Polymer based optical waveguides Abstract 9.1 Rationale of polymers used for optical waveguides 9.2 Polymeric waveguide materials 9.2.1 Current perspectives 9.2.2 Materials characterization and performance requirement 9.2.3 Conventional optical polymers 9.2.4 Advanced optical polymers 9.3 Fabrication process of polymer waveguides 9.3.1 Photoresist-based patterning 9.3.2 Direct lithographic patterning 9.3.3 Soft lithography 9.3.4 Electron beam bombardment 9.3.5 Injection molding 9.3.6 UV writing 9.3.7 Dispensed polymer waveguides 9.3.8 Doping of polymers to create waveguide devices 9.4 Polymer based optical components and integrated optics 9.4.1 Switches 9.4.2 Variable optical attenuators and tunable filters 9.4.3 Polarization controllers and modulators 9.4.4 Lasers and amplifiers 9.4.5 Detectors 9.4.6 Optical interconnects for computing systems 9.4.7 Planar optical connects for wavelength division multiplexing telecommunication systems 9.4.8 Planar optical waveguides for sensors 9.4.9 Integrated planar lightwave circuits 9.5 Summary Reference 10 Hollow waveguides Abstract 10.1 State of art and perspectives 10.2 Hollow waveguide design and materials selection 10.2.1 Design principle 10.2.2 Materials selection and structure design 10.3 OmniGuide hollow Bragg fibers 10.4 Metal/dielectric coated hollow waveguides 10.5 Hollow glass waveguides 10.6 Chalcogenide glass hollow Bragg fibers 10.6.1 Germanium selenide glass 10.6.2 High refractive index chalcogenide glasses 10.6.3 Silver-Arsenic-Selenide glasses 10.6.4 Chalcogenide glass HBF preform fabrication and drawing 10.7 Liquid core waveguides 10.8 Applications of hollow waveguides 10.8.1 Hollow waveguides for optical PCB technology 10.8.2 Hollow waveguides for medical applications 10.8.3 Prospective telecommunication applications 10.8.4 Hollow waveguides as gas cells 10.8.5 Applications of hollow waveguides for remote sensing 10.8.6 Industrial Applications 10.9 Summary Reference 11 Metamaterial optical waveguides Abstract 11.1 Historical perspective 11.2 Fabrication techniques of optical metamaterials 11.2.1 2D metamaterial structures 11.2.2 3D metamaterials 11.2.3 Thin metal film deposition for fabrication of metamaterials 11.3 Metamaterial waveguiding principle 11.4 Modes of metamaterial waveguide structures 11.5 Metamaterial modulators 11.5.1 Free-space fishnet metamaterial modulator 11.5.2 Integrated fishnet metamaterial modulator 11.6 Superlens 11.6.1 Superlensing in the near field 11.6.2 Superlenses projecting far-field images 11.6.3 Hyperlens as an optical turbine 11.7 Metamaterial sensors 11.7.1 Biosensors 11.7.2 Thin-film sensors 11.7.3 Wireless strain sensors 11.8 Future prospects| 11.9 Summary Reference 12 Perspectives and future trends Abstract 12.1 Optical waveguide devices and materials 12.1.1 Terahertz band 12.1.2 Near-infrared range 12.1.3 Visible and ultraviolet ranges 12.1.4 Optical interconnects 12.2 Advances of micro-optics and nanophotonics 12.2.1 Silicon photonics 12.2.2 Nanoplasmonics 12.2.3 Photonic crystals and metamaterials for micro-optics and nanophotonics 12.2.4 Terahertz radiation and its applications 12.2.5 Nanophotonics and quantum information processing 12.3 Trends in applications 12.3.1 Optical communication networks 12.3.2 Optical memory and information processing 12.3.3 Displays 12.3.4 Laser processing and optical measurement 12.3.5 Medical technology in the optical industry 12.4 Summary References Index
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