Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications

Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications

By: Norman N. Li (editor), Takeshi Matsuura (editor), Anthony G. Fane (editor), W. S. Winston Ho (editor)Hardback

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Description

Advanced membranes-from fundamentals and membrane chemistry to manufacturing and applications A hands-on reference for practicing professionals, Advanced Membrane Technology and Applications covers the fundamental principles and theories of separation and purification by membranes, the important membrane processes and systems, and major industrial applications. It goes far beyond the basics to address the formulation and industrial manufacture of membranes and applications. This practical guide: Includes coverage of all the major types of membranes: ultrafiltration; microfiltration; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis (including the recent high-flux and low-pressure membranes and anti-fouling membranes); membranes for gas separations; and membranes for fuel cell uses Addresses six major topics: membranes and applications in water and wastewater; membranes for biotechnology and chemical/biomedical applications; gas separations; membrane contractors and reactors; environmental and energy applications; and membrane materials and characterization Includes discussions of important strategic issues and the future of membrane technology With chapters contributed by leading experts in their specific areas and a practical focus, this is the definitive reference for professionals in industrial manufacturing and separations and research and development; practitioners in the manufacture and applications of membranes; scientists in water treatment, pharmaceutical, food, and fuel cell processing industries; process engineers; and others. It is also an excellent resource for researchers in industry and academia and graduate students taking courses in separations and membranes and related fields.

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About Author

Norman N. Li, PhD, is the President of NL Chemical Technology, Inc., and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Li holds forty-five patents, has edited twenty books, and has received many honors, including the 2000 Perkin Medal presented by the Society of Chemical Industry American Section. Anthony G. Fane, PhD, is Director of the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre at NanyangTechnological University, Singapore. He is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. W. S. Winston Ho, PhD, has been University Scholar Professor of Chemical Engineering at The Ohio State University. He holds more than fifty U.S. patents in separation processes and has won several awards, including the 2007 Clarence G. Gerhold Award from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Takeshi Matsuura, PhD, is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Ottawa, Canada. He has published more than 300 papers in refereed journals, authored or coauthored three books, and edited four books.

Contents

PREFACE xv ABOUT THE EDITORS xvii CONTRIBUTORS xix PART I MEMBRANES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER 1 1. Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Reverse Osmosis 3 Tadahiro Uemura and Masahiro Henmi 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Application of RO Membranes 3 1.3 Major Progress in RO Membranes 4 1.4 Trends in RO Membrane Technology 6 1.5 Reverse Osmosis/Biofouling Protection 13 1.6 Low-Fouling RO Membrane for Wastewater Reclamation 14 1.7 Chlorine Tolerance of Cross-Linked Aromatic Polyamide Membrane 17 2. Cellulose Triacetate Membranes for Reverse Osmosis 21 A. Kumano and N. Fujiwara 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 History of Cellulose Acetate Membrane 21 2.3 Toyobo RO Module for Seawater Desalination 22 2.4 Actual Performance of Toyobo RO Module for Seawater Desalination 28 2.5 Most Recent RO Module of Cellulose Triacetate 35 2.6 Conclusion 43 3. Seawater Desalination 47 Nikolay Voutchkov and Raphael Semiat 3.1 Introduction 47 3.2 Seawater Desalination Plant Configuration 50 3.3 Water Production Costs 82 3.4 Future Trends 84 3.5 Conclusion 85 4. Seawater Desalination by Ultralow-Energy Reverse Osmosis 87 R. L. Truby 4.1 Introduction 87 4.2 SWRO Energy Reduction Using Energy Recovery Technology 88 4.3 SWRO Energy Optimization 95 4.4 Affordable Desalination Collaboration (ADC) 96 4.5 Conclusion 99 5. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 101 N. Kubota, T. Hashimoto, and Y. Mori 5.1 Introduction 101 5.2 Recent Trends and Progress in MF/UF Technology 104 5.3 Future Prospects 127 6. Water Treatment by Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 131 M. D. Kennedy, J. Kamanyi, S. G. Salinas Rodri'guez, N. H. Lee, J. C. Schippers, and G. Amy 6.1 Introduction 131 6.2 Materials, Module Configurations, and Manufacturers 133 6.3 Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration Pretreatment 142 6.4 Membrane Applications 146 6.5 Membrane Fouling and Cleaning 149 6.6 Integrated Membrane Systems (MF or UF p RO or NF) 160 6.7 Backwash Water Reuse, Treatment, and Disposal 164 7. Water Reclamation and Desalination by Membranes 171 Pierre Cote, Mingang Liu, and Steven Siverns 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Water Reclamation and Seawater Desalination 172 7.3 Cost Estimation 173 7.4 Process Options for Water Reclamation 174 7.5 Cost of Water Reclamation 177 7.6 Process Options for Desalination 181 7.7 Cost of Desalination 181 7.8 Water Reuse versus Desalination 185 7.9 Conclusions 186 8. Chitosan Membranes with Nanoparticles for Remediation of Chlorinated Organics 189 Yit-Hong Tee and Dibakar Bhattacharyya 8.1 Introduction 189 8.2 Experimental Section 191 8.3 Results and Discussions 197 8.4 Conclusions 212 9. Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment 217 P. Cornel and S. Krause 9.1 Introduction 217 9.2 Principle of the Membrane Bioreactor Process 217 9.3 MBR Design Considerations 230 9.4 Applications and Cost 233 9.5 Conclusions and Summary 235 10. Submerged Membranes 239 Anthony G. Fane 10.1 Introduction 239 10.2 Modes of Operation of Submerged Membranes 241 10.3 Submerged Membrane Module Geometries 246 10.4 Bubbling and Hydrodynamic Considerations 253 10.5 Practical Aspects 262 10.6 Applications 267 10.7 Conclusions 268 11. Nanofiltration 271 Bart Van der Bruggen and Jeroen Geens 11.1 Introduction 271 11.2 Process Principles 272 11.3 Application of Nanofiltration for Production of Drinking Water and Process Water 276 11.4 Wastewater Polishing and Water Reuse 280 11.5 Other Applications 283 11.6 Solvent-Resistant Nanofiltration 284 11.7 Conclusions 287 12. Membrane Distillation 297 Mohamed Khayet 12.1 Introduction to Membrane Distillation 297 12.2 Membrane Distillation Membranes and Modules 305 12.3 Membrane Distillation Membrane Characterization Techniques 320 12.4 Transport Mechanisms in MD: Temperature Polarization, Concentration Polarization, and Theoretical Models 331 12.5 Membrane Distillation Applications 341 12.6 Long-Term MD Performance and Membrane Fouling in MD 355 12.7 Hybrid MD Systems 356 12.8 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions in MD 357 13. Ultrapure Water by Membranes 371 Avijit Dey 13.1 Introduction 371 13.2 Integrated Membrane Technology in UPW Systems 377 PART II MEMBRANES FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CHEMICAL / BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 407 14. Tissue Engineering with Membranes 409 Zhanfeng Cui 14.1 Introduction 409 14.2 Hollow-Fiber Membrane Bioreactors for Three-Dimensional Tissue Culture 412 14.3 Micromembrane Probes for Tissue Engineering Monitoring 420 14.4 Future Opportunities 427 14.5 Summary 429 15. Biopharmaceutical Separations by Ultrafiltration 435 Raja Ghosh 15.1 Introduction 435 15.2 Ultrafiltration: An Overview 436 15.3 Basic Working Principles of Ultrafiltration 437 15.4 Ultrafiltration Membranes and Devices 438 15.5 Ultrafiltration Processes 446 15.6 Conclusion 449 16. Nanofiltration in Organic Solvents 451 P. Silva, L. G. Peeva, and A. G. Livingston 16.1 Organic Solvent Nanofiltration Membranes 451 16.2 OSN Transport Mechanisms-Theoretical Background 458 16.3 Applications of Organic Solvent Nanofiltration 461 17. Pervaporation 469 Fakhir U. Baig 17.1 Introduction 469 17.2 Applications of AZEO SEP and VOC SEP 471 17.3 Computer Simulation of Module Performance 475 17.4 Permeation and Separation Model in Hollow-Fiber Membrane Module 481 17.5 Conclusion 487 18. Biomedical Applications of Membranes 489 G. Catapano and J. Vienken 18.1 Introduction 489 18.2 Membrane Therapeutic Treatments 490 18.3 Medical Membrane Properties 496 18.4 Medical Membrane Materials 501 18.5 Biocompatibility of Membrane-Based Therapeutic Treatments 508 18.6 Conclusions 511 19. Hemodialysis Membranes 519 Norma J. Ofsthun, Sujatha Karoor, and Mitsuru Suzuki 19.1 Introduction 519 19.2 Transport Requirements 521 19.3 Other Requirements 525 19.4 Membrane Materials, Spinning Technology, and Structure 527 19.5 Dialyzer Design and Performance 530 19.6 Current Market Trends 533 19.7 Future Directions 533 19.8 Conclusions 536 20. Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture 541 S. Ranil Wickramasinghe 20.1 Introduction 541 20.2 Tangential-Flow Filtration 543 20.3 Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Capture 545 20.4 Tangential-Flow Filtration for Virus Clearance 550 20.5 Conclusions 552 PART III GAS SEPARATIONS 557 21. Vapor and Gas Separation by Membranes 559 Richard W. Baker 21.1 Introduction to Membranes and Modules 559 21.2 Membrane Process Design 563 21.3 Applications 567 21.4 Conclusions 577 21.5 Glossary 577 22. Gas Separation by Polyimide Membranes 581 Yoji Kase 22.1 Introduction 581 22.2 Permeability and Chemical Structure of Polyimides 582 22.3 Manufacture of Asymmetric Membrane 587 22.4 Membrane Module 588 22.5 Applications of Polyimide Gas Separation Membranes 589 23. Gas Separation by Carbon Membranes 599 P. Jason Williams and William J. Koros 23.1 Introduction 599 23.2 Structure of Carbon Membranes 599 23.3 Transport in Carbon Membranes 601 23.4 Formation of Carbon Membranes 604 23.5 Current Separation Performance 616 23.6 Production of CMS Modules 620 23.7 Challenges and Disadvantages of CMS Membranes 622 23.8 Direction of Carbon Membrane Development 626 24. Polymeric Membrane Materials and Potential Use in Gas Separation 633 Ho Bum Park and Young Moo Lee 24.1 Introduction 633 24.2 Basic Principles of Gas Separation in Polymer Membranes 635 24.3 Limitations of Gas Separations Using Polymer Membranes 643 24.4 Polymer Membrane Materials 646 24.5 Membrane Gas Separation Applications and Conclusions 659 25. Hydrogen Separation Membranes 671 Yi Hua Ma 25.1 Introduction 671 25.2 Porous Nonmetallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separations 672 25.3 High-Temperature Hydrogen Separation Membranes 674 25.4 Concluding Remarks 680 PART IV MEMBRANE CONTACTORS AND REACTORS 685 26. Membrane Contactors 687 Kamalesh K. Sirkar 26.1 Introduction 687 26.2 Membrane-Based Contacting of Two Fluid Phases 690 26.3 Membrane-Based Solid-Fluid Contacting 696 26.4 Two Immobilized Phase Interfaces 697 26.5 Dispersive Contacting in a Membrane Contactor 699 26.6 Concluding Remarks 700 27. Membrane Reactors 703 Enrico Drioli and Enrica Fontananova 27.1 State-of-the-Art On Catalytic Membrane Reactors 703 27.2 Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatments 704 27.3 Selective Oxidations 710 27.4 Biocatalytic Membrane Reactors 712 27.5 Catalytic Crystals 712 27.6 Inorganic Membrane Reactors 713 27.7 Microreactors 713 27.8 Conclusions 714 PART V ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY APPLICATIONS 719 28. Facilitated Transport Membranes for Environmental, Energy, and Biochemical Applications 721 Jian Zou, Jin Huang, and W. S. Winston Ho 28.1 Introduction 721 28.2 Supported Liquid Membranes with Strip Dispersion 729 28.3 Carbon-Dioxide-Selective Membranes 737 28.4 Conclusions 747 29. Fuel Cell Membranes 755 Peter N. Pintauro and Ryszard Wycisk 29.1 Introduction to Fuel Cells 755 29.2 Background on Fuel Cell Membranes 759 29.3 Recent Work on New Fuel Cell Membranes 764 29.4 Conclusions 779 PART VI MEMBRANE MATERIALS AND CHARACTERIZATION 787 30. Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes 789 Chunqing Liu, Santi Kulprathipanja, Alexis M. W. Hillock, Shabbir Husain, and William J. Koros 30.1 Introduction 789 30.2 Recent Progress in Mixed-Matrix Membranes 794 30.3 Summary and Future Opportunities 809 31. Fabrication of Hollow-Fiber Membranes by Phase Inversion 821 Tai-Shung Neal Chung 31.1 Introduction 821 31.2 Basic Understanding 822 31.3 Recent Progresses on Single-Layer Asymmetric Hollow-Fiber Membranes 825 31.4 Dual-Layer Hollow Fibers 831 31.5 Concluding Remarks 835 32. Membrane Surface Characterization 841 M. Kallioinen and M. Nystrom 32.1 Introduction 841 32.2 Characterization of the Chemical Structure of a Membrane 842 32.3 Characterization of Membrane Hydrophilicity 852 32.4 Characterization of Membrane Charge 855 32.5 Characterization of Membrane Morphology 859 32.6 Conclusions 867 33. Membrane Characterization by Ultrasonic Time-Domain Reflectometry 879 William B. Krantz and Alan R. Greenberg 33.1 Introduction 879 33.2 Principle of UTDR Measurement 880 33.3 Characterization of Inorganic Membrane Fouling 882 33.4 Characterization of Membrane Biofouling 885 33.5 Characterization of Membrane Compaction 886 33.6 Characterization of Membrane Formation 889 33.7 Characterization of Membrane Morphology 891 33.8 Summary and Recommendations 894 34. Microstructural Optimization of Thin Supported Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Water Purification 899 M. L. Mottern, J. Y. Shi, K. Shqau, D. Yu, and Henk Verweij 34.1 Introduction 899 34.2 Morphology, Porosity, and Defects 902 34.3 Optimization of Supported Membrane Structures 908 34.4 Synthesis and Manufacturing 917 34.5 Characterization 918 34.6 Conclusions 923 35. Structure/ Property Characteristics of Polar Rubbery Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Removal 929 Victor A. Kusuma, Benny D. Freeman, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Haiqing Lin, Sumod Kalakkunnath, and Douglass S. Kalika 35.1 Introduction and Background 929 35.2 Theory and Experiment 931 35.3 Results and Discussion 937 35.4 Conclusions 950 Index 955

Product Details

  • publication date: 18/07/2007
  • ISBN13: 9780471731672
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1016
  • ID: 9780471731672
  • weight: 1972
  • ISBN10: 0471731676

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