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Advanced Oxidation Technologies: Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments (Sustainable Energy Developments)

Advanced Oxidation Technologies: Sustainable Solutions for Environmental Treatments (Sustainable Energy Developments)

By: Marta I. Litter (editor), J. Martin Meichtry (editor), Roberto J. Candal (editor)Hardback

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Description

Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) or Processes (AOPs) are relatively new and innovative technologies to remove harmful and toxic pollutants. The most important processes among them are those using light, such as UVC/H2O2, photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2. These technologies are also relatively low-cost and therefore useful for countries under development, where the economical resources are scarcer than in developed countries. This book provides a state-of-the-art overview on environmental applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) as sustainable, low-cost and low-energy consuming treatments for water, air, and soil. It includes information on innovative research and development on TiO2 photocatalytic redox processes, Fenton, Photo-Fenton processes, zerovalent iron technology, and others, highlighting possible applications of AOTs in both developing and industrialized countries around the world in the framework of "A crosscutting and comprehensive look at environmental problems". The book is aimed at professionals and academics worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply, environmental protection, and will be a useful information source for decision and policy makers and other stakeholders working on solutions for environmental problems.

About Author

Professor Marta I. Litter was born in BuenosAires,Argentina. She holds a degree and a Doctorate in Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She performed a Postdoctoral stage at the University of Arizona, USA, in Polymer Chemistry (1983). She is the Head of Remediation Technologies Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Principal Researcher, National Research Council (CONICET,Argentina) and Full Professor of the University of General San Martin, Argentina. She has written more than 150 scientific publications. She has coordinated several projects on water treatment, mainly in Advanced Oxidation Technologies. She was also Coordinator of the CYTED IBEROARSEN Network (2006-2009). She received the Mercosur Prize 2006 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Social Inclusion, for the Project: "Potabilization of water by low-cost technologies in isolated rural zones of Mercosur" and the Mercosur Prize 2011 in Science and Technology, Technologies for Sustainable Development, for the Project: "The problem of arsenic in the Mercosur.An integrated and multidisciplinary approach to contribute to its resolution." At present she is President of the Local Organizing Committee of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As2014) to be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 11 to 16 May 2014. Professor Roberto J. Candal, born 1960 in Argentina, holds a degree in Chemistry and a doctorate in the field of Inorganic Chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires. He held a three year position as Post-doc at the Water Chemistry Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA. His interests in research are focused on the development of newmaterials with application in water or air remediation, photocatalysis, sol-gel chemistry and water chemistry. Dr. Candal is co-author of more than 50 scientific publications in peer reviewed international journals and books. He has directed or co-directed three PhD Thesis; at present, he is directing three PhDThesis in environmental chemistry. Since 2010 he is Associate Professor at the National University of San Martin, Argentina, and Independent Researcher at the National Research Council ofArgentina (INQUIMAE-CONICET). Dr. Candal is a founding member ofArgentina Society for Science and Environmental Technology (SACyTA). Dr. J. Martin Meichtry was born in 1977 in Colon, Entre Rios, Argentina. He is Doctor in Engineering from the University of Buenos Aires (2011). Presently he is Researcher at the Remediation Technologies Division, Chemistry Management, National Atomic Energy Commission, Argentina, Assistant Researcher of the National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Assistant Professor at the Chemistry Department, Buenos Aires School of the National Technological University, Argentina. He is author of 10 scientific publications, mainly in international journals of high impact in physical chemistry and environmental sciences, 4 chapters of books and many technical reports. He has more than 50 presentations in national and international congresses and other scientific meetings. He has participated in three prized presentations: Environmental Chemistry session, VI Congress Latin America SETAC (2003), Innovar Prize from MINCYT Argentina (2009) and Environmental Technology and Engineering section, COPIME Environmental Science Congress (2011). He has participated in 16 projects on water treatment, especially on Advanced Oxidation Technologies and more especially on Heterogeneous Photocatalysis. He is reviewer of the Chemical Engineering Science, Water Research and Chemical Engineering Science (ELS).

Contents

1. Decontamination of water by solar irradiation Sixto Malato, Manuel I. Maldonado, Pilar Fernandez, Isabel Oller, Inmaculada Polo & Nikolaus Klamerth1.1 Introduction 1.2 Solar advanced oxidation processes 1.2.1 TiO2 solar photocatalysis 1.2.2 Solar photo-fenton 1.3 Solar technical issues 1.3.1 Hardware for solar AOPs 1.3.2 Solar photocatalytic treatment plants 1.4 Treatment of industrial wastewaters 1.4.1 Toxicity and biodegradability assessment 1.4.2 Industrial wastewater treatment by combined AOPs/biotreatment 1.5 Treatment of secondary effluents 1.6 Conclusions 2. Reduction of pentavalent and trivalent arsenic by TiO2-photocatalysis: An innovative way of arsenic removal Marta I. Litter, Ivana K. Levy, Natalia Quici, Martin Mizrahi, Gustavo Ruano, Guillermo Zampieri & Felix G. Requejo2.1 Introduction 2.2 Experimental section 2.2.1 Materials and methods 2.2.2 Irradiation systems 2.3 Results 2.3.1 As(V) photocatalytic experiments 2.3.2 As(III) photocatalytic experiments 2.3.3 Analysis of solid residues 2.4 Discussion 2.4.1 Mechanisms at acid pH 2.4.2 Effect of pH 2.4.3 Comparison with previous results 2.5 Conclusions 3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of tungstophosphoric acid immobilized onY zeolite Candelaria Leal Marchena, Silvina Gomez, Liliana B. Pierella & Luis R. Pizzio3.1 Introduction 3.2 Experimental 3.2.1 Samples preparation 3.2.2 Sample characterization 3.2.2.1 Textural properties 3.2.2.2 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 3.2.2.3 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy 3.2.2.4 X-Ray diffraction 3.2.2.5 Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry 3.2.2.6 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 3.2.2.7 Potentiometric titration 3.2.3 Photodegradation reaction 3.3 Results and discussion 3.4 Conclusions 4. Kinetic aspects of the photodegradation of phenolic and lactonic biocides under natural and artificial conditions Juan P. Escalada, Adriana Pajares, Mabel Bregliani, Alicia Biasutti, Susana Criado, Patricia Molina,Walter Massad & Norman A. Garcia4.1 Introduction 4.2 Photochemical degradation 4.2.1 Modeling natural photodegradation 4.2.2 Artificial photodegradation 4.2.3 Biocides selected for the study 4.2.3.1 State of the art 4.3 Methods for photodegradation studies 4.3.1 Sensitized photoirradiation 4.3.1.1 Quenching of 1Rf* and 3Rf* 4.3.1.2 Quenching of O2(14.3.2 Direct photolysis of ABA, BXN and DCP 4.4 Conclusions 5. Fenton-like oxidation of phenol with a Cu-chitosan/Al2O3 catalyst in a recirculating batch reactor Natalia Inchaurrondo, Josep Font & Patricia Haure5.1 Introduction 5.2 Experimental 5.2.1 Catalyst preparation and characterization 5.2.2 Fenton like oxidation of phenol aqueous solutions 5.2.2.1 Reaction set-up 5.2.3 Analytical methods 5.3 Results and discussion 5.3.1 Blank experiment 5.3.2 Activity and stability tests 5.3.3 Deactivation phenomena 5.3.4 Effect of intermediate products adsorption 5.3.5 Initial pH effect 5.3.6 Copper load effect 5.3.7 Liquid flow rate effect 5.4 Conclusions 6. Degradation of a mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D in water solution employing the UV/H2O2 process, including toxicity evaluation Melisa Mariani, Roberto Romero, Alberto Cassano & Cristina Zalazar6.1 Introduction 6.2 Materials and methods 6.2.1 Chemicals 6.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures 6.2.3 Analytical measurements 6.2.4 Toxicity assay 6.2.5 Operation 6.3 Results and discussion 6.3.1 Preliminary runs 6.3.2 Effect of initial pH values 6.3.3 Effects of initial hydrogen peroxide concentration 6.3.4 Effect of glyphosate and 2,4-D initial concentrations 6.3.5 Effect of variations in the incident UV spectral fluence rate at the irradiated reactor walls 6.3.6 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution 6.3.7 Formation of by-products and intermediates 6.3.8 Toxicity and chemical oxygen demand assays 6.4 Conclusions 7. Degradation of perchlorate dissolved in water by a combined application of ion exchange resin and zerovalent iron nanoparticles Luis Cumbal, Daniel Delgado & Erika Murgueitio7.1 Introduction 7.2 Experimental section 7.2.1 Chemicals 7.2.2 Procedures 7.2.2.1 Preparation of nanoparticles 7.2.2.2 Physical characterization of nanoparticles 7.2.2.3 Conditioning of ion exchange resins and loading with perchlorate 7.2.2.4 Kinetic tests 7.2.2.5 Degradation of perchlorate 7.2.3 Chemical analysis 7.3 Results and discussion 7.3.1 Physical characterization of nanoparticles 7.3.2 Kinetic tests 7.3.3 Degradation of perchlorate 7.3.4 Effect of competing ions and organic matter on the degradation of perchlorate 7.4 Conclusions 8. Eco-friendly approach for Direct Blue 273 removal from an aqueous medium Pamela Yanina Gonzalez Clar, Gustavo Levin, Maria Victoria Miranda & Viviana Campo Dall' Orto8.1 Introduction 8.2 DB273 enzymatic decoloration 8.2.1 The enzyme 8.2.2 Color removal by oxidation 8.3 DB273 discoloration by adsorption 8.3.1 Synthesis and characterization of the polyampholyte 8.3.2 Kinetics of sorption 8.3.3 Isotherm data analysis 8.3.4 FTIR analysis 8.4 Conclusions 9. Decontamination of commercial chlorpyrifos in water using the UV/H2O2 process Joana Femia, Melisa Mariani, Alberto Cassano, Cristina Zalazar & Ines Tiscornia9.1 Introduction 9.2 Materials and methods 9.2.1 Chemicals 9.2.2 Experimental setups and procedures 9.2.3 Analytical methods 9.2.4 Bioassay test 9.3 Results and discussion 9.3.1 Preliminary runs 9.3.2 Effect of initial H2O2 concentration 9.3.3 Total organic carbon (TOC) evolution 9.3.4 Evaluation of electrical energy per order 9.3.5 Toxicity evaluation 9.4 Conclusions 10. Abatement of nitrate in drinking water. A comparative study of photocatalytic and conventional catalytic technologies F. Albana Marchesini, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Orlando Alfano, M. Alicia Ulla, Eduardo Miro & Alberto Cassano10.1 Introduction 10.2 Materials and methods 10.2.1 Chemicals 10.2.2 Catalyst preparation 10.2.3 Catalyst characterization 10.2.3.1 X-Ray diffraction analysis (DRX) 10.2.3.2 Temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) 10.2.4 Catalytic activity measurements 10.2.4.1 Preliminary batch experiments 10.2.4.2 Photocatalytic experiments 10.2.5 Analytical methods 10.3 Results and discussion 10.3.1 Physicochemical characterization of the Pt,In/TiO2 catalyst 10.3.2 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Conventional batch reactor 10.3.3 Catalytic reduction of nitrates: Photocatalytic reactor 10.3.4 Spatial distribution of the radiation absorption 10.4 Conclusions 11. Photocatalytic inactivation of airborne microorganisms. Performance of different TiO2 coatings Silvia Mercedes Zacarias, Maria Lucila Satuf, Maria Celia Vaccari & Orlando Alfano11.1 Introduction 11.2 Kinetic study 11.2.1 Experimental set up and procedure 11.2.2 Inactivation of spores 11.2.3 Kinetic modeling 11.2.3.1 Proposed kinetic model 11.2.3.2 Radiation model 11.2.3.3 Kinetic parameters estimation 11.3 Study of different TiO2 coatings 11.3.1 Efficiency parameters 11.3.2 Preparation of the photocatalytic coatings 11.3.3 Characterization of the photocatalytic plates 11.3.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic efficiencies 11.3.5 Discussion 11.4 Conclusions 12. Water decontamination by heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes over iron, iron minerals and iron-modified clays Andrea De Leon, Marta Sergio, Juan Bussi, Guadalupe Ortiz de la Plata, Alberto Cassano & Orlando Alfano12.1 Introduction 12.2 Catalysts for use in heterogeneous photo-fenton processes 12.2.1 Iron and iron minerals 12.2.2 Supported and immobilized iron species 12.2.3 Iron species supported on clays 12.3 Experimental 12.3.1 Catalysts 12.3.1.1 Fe-PILCs 12.3.1.2 Goethite 12.3.1.3 Zerovalent iron 12.3.2 Catalyst characterization 12.3.3 Photocatalytic tests 12.3.3.1 Fluidized bed batch reactor 12.3.3.2 Stirred batch reactor 12.3.4 Analytical techniques 12.4 Catalytic activity 12.4.1 Iron-pillared clays used for dye degradation 12.4.1.1 Contribution of different processes entailed in contaminant removal 12.4.1.2 Influence of the clay aggregate size used for Fe-PILC preparation 12.4.1.3 Influence of the initial pH of the reaction medium 12.4.1.4 Selection of the temperature for calcination of the exchanged clay 12.4.2 Fe-PILC, goethite and zerovalent iron in 2-chlorophenol degradation 12.5 Conclusions 13. Modified montmorillonite in photo-Fenton and adsorption processes Lucas M. Guz, Melisa Olivelli, Rosa M. Torres Sanchez, Gustavo Curutchet & Roberto J. Candal13.1 Introduction 13.2 Experimental section 13.2.1 Materials 13.2.2 Iron (III) modified montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) 13.2.3 Copper (II) modified montmorillonite (Cu-MMT) 13.2.4 Biomodified montmorillonite (Apha-BMMT) 13.2.5 Adsorption of Cu(II) on MMT and Apha-BMMT 13.2.6 Materials characterization 13.2.7 Photo-Fenton experiments 13.3 Results 13.3.1 Adsorption of Cu(II) on P5-MMT and Apha-BMMT 13.3.2 Catalysts characterization 13.3.3 Photo-Fenton experiments 13.4 Discussion 13.5 Conclusions 14. Photocatalytic degradation of dichlorvos solution using TiO2-supported ZSM-11 zeolite Silvina Gomez, Candelaria Leal Marchena, Luis Pizzio & Liliana Pierella14.1 Introduction 14.2 Experimental 14.2.1 Preparation of zeolite supported TiO2 catalyst 14.2.2 Characterization of the photocatalysts 14.2.3 Photocatalytic experiments and analyses 14.3 Results and discussion 14.3.1 Characterization of TiO2/zeolite catalysts 14.3.1.1 XRD analysis 14.3.1.2 FTIR spectra 14.3.1.3 BET surface area 14.3.2 Photocatalytic evaluation 14.3.2.1 Preliminary studies 14.3.2.2 Effect of TiO2 content on TiO2/HZSM-11 and TiO2/NH4-ZSM-11 samples 14.3.2.3 Effect of the preparation of the catalyst and role of the support 14.3.2.4 Effect of catalyst amount 14.3.2.5 Effect of the calcination temperature 14.3.2.6 Effect of initial pH value 14.3.2.7 Effect of adding H2O2 to the photodegradation of DDVP 14.3.3 Photocatalyst recycling studies 14.4 Conclusions 15. Water disinfection with UVC and/or chemical inactivation. Mechanistic differences, implications and consequences Marina Flores, Rodolfo Brandi, Alberto Cassano & Marisol Labas15.1 Introduction 15.2 Disinfection 15.3 UV disinfection 15.3.1 The principle of UV disinfection 15.3.1.1 Repair mechanisms 15.3.2 Case study: UV disinfection in clear water conditions 15.3.2.1 Experimental procedure 15.3.2.2 Experimental runs 15.3.2.3 Kinetic model 15.3.2.4 Experimental results 15.4 Hydrogen peroxide 15.4.1 The principle of disinfection using hydrogen peroxide 15.4.2 Case study: hydrogen peroxide disinfection in clear water conditions 15.4.2.1 Experimental procedure 15.4.2.2 Kinetic model 15.4.2.3 Mathematical model final equations 15.4.2.4 Experimental results 15.5 Peracetic acid 15.5.1 PAA mode of action 15.5.2 Case study: water disinfection with peracetic acid in clear water conditions 15.5.2.1 Experimental procedure 15.5.2.2 A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid decomposition 15.5.2.3 Experimental results 15.6 Peracetic acid+UV light 15.6.1 Case study: disinfection of water with peracetic acid and its combination with UVC 15.6.1.1 Experimental procedure 15.6.1.2 A proposed kinetics of peracetic acid+UV 15.6.1.3 Experimental results 15.7 Hydrogen peroxide+UV 15.7.1 Case study: disinfection with hydrogen peroxide and UV light in clear water conditions 15.7.1.1 Experimental procedure 15.7.1.2 Kinetic model 15.7.1.3 Experimental results 15.8 Conclusions Appendix 16. Ag/AgCl composite material: synthesis, characterization and application in treating wastewater Wei-Lin Dai, Quan-Jing Zhu, Jian-Feng Guo & Bo-Wen Ma16.1 Introduction 16.2 Synthesis of the photocatalysts 16.2.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere 16.2.1.1 Preparation of Ag spheres using ascorbic acid as the reducing agent 16.2.1.2 Preparation of Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere using ferric chloride 16.2.2 Ag/AgCl@Cotton-fabric 16.2.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere 16.2.3.1 Preparation of the hollow sphere PbWO4 16.2.3.2 Preparation of the hollow sphereWO3 16.2.3.3 Preparation of Ag-AgCl/WO3 16.2.4 Ag-AgCl@TiO2 16.2.5 Ag-AgI/Fe3O4@SiO2 16.2.5.1 Synthesis of Fe3O4 particles 16.2.5.2 Synthesis of Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres 16.2.5.3 Synthesis of AgI/Fe3O4@SiO2 16.2.5.4 Synthesis of Ag-AgI/Fe3O4@SiO2 16.3 Characterization of the photocatalysts 16.4 Evaluation of photocatalytic activity 16.5 Results and discussion 16.5.1 Ag/AgCl core-shell sphere 16.5.2 Ag/AgCl@Cotton-fabric 16.5.3 Ag-AgCl/WO3 hollow sphere 16.5.4 Ag-AgCl@TiO216.5.5 Ag-AgI/Fe3O4@SiO216.6 Conclusions 17. Highly photoactive Er3+-TiO2 system by means of up-conversion and electronic cooperative mechanism Sergio Obregon & Gerardo Colon17.1 Introduction 17.2 Experimental section 17.2.1 Synthesis of photocatalysts 17.2.2 Materials characterization 17.2.3 Photocatalytic experimental details 17.3 Results and discussion 17.4 Conclusions 18. Stabilized TiO2 nanoparticles on clay minerals for air and water treatment Elias Stathatos, Dimitrios Papoulis & Dionisios Panagiotaras18.1 Introduction 18.2 TiO2 nanoparticles and films 18.2.1 Sol-gel method for nanoparticles and films 18.2.2 Hydrothermal route for TiO2 nanoparticles and films 18.3 StabilizedTiO2 particles with sol-gel method on clay minerals. Palygorskite clay mineral as support for TiO2 particles 18.3.1 Materials and methods 18.3.2 Photocatalyst characterization 18.3.3 Photocatalytic activity of sol-gel TiO2 modified palygorskite clay mineral for polluted water with an azo dye 18.4 Stabilized TiO2 particles with hydrothermal route on clay minerals. Halloysite clay mineral as an example 18.4.1 Materials and methods 18.4.2 Photocatalyst characterization 18.4.3 Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified halloysite clay mineral for air purification 18.5 Conclusions 19. Photodegradation of beta-blockers in water Virender K. Sharma, Hyunook Kim & Radek Zboril19.1 Introduction 19.2 Phototransformation in water 19.3 Influence of water chemistry 19.3.1 pH 19.3.2 Nitrate ion19.3.3 Types of natural organic matter 19.4 Mechanism 19.5 Mineralization and toxicity 19.6 Conclusions 20. Final conclusions Marta I. Litter, Roberto J. Candal & J. Martin MeichtrySubject index Book series page Contributors

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781138001275
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 350
  • ID: 9781138001275
  • weight: 952
  • ISBN10: 1138001279

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