This text presents state-of-the-art techniques for surgery of the craniovertebral junction and cervical spine. It provides concise explanations of the underlying principles of each technique and insights into the unique issues in pediatric surgery. With this complete resource, you will gain the solid foundation in surgical concepts necessary to make critical clinical decisions as well as the technical knowledge and confidence to carry them out.
Highlights include: Detailed explanations illuminating the links between embryology and normal and abnormal development of the craniovertebral junction and cervical spine In-depth discussion of the issues and techniques involved in both atlantoaxial and occipitocervical surgery in children An entire chapter devoted to managing craniocervical conditions of patients with Down Syndrome An examination of traumatic injuries of the craniocervical junction in children More than 100 step-by-step illustrations demonstrating key surgical techniques This readily accessible text will be a valuable asset in the library of physicians managing and treating craniocervical conditions, from the most experienced pediatric neurosurgeon to residents in the early stages of their careers.
1.Anatomy, Embryology, and Normal and Abnormal Development of the Craniovertebral Junction and Cervical Spine (Mark S. Dias and Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Anatomy of the Subaxial Cervical Spine Bony, Disk, and Ligamentous Anatomy Vascular and Lymphatic Anatomy Anatomy of the Craniovertebral Junction Bony and Ligamentous Anatomy Vascular and Lymphatic Anatomy Embryology of the Cervical Spine Gastrulation and Formation of Somites and Notochord Condensation of the Somitic Mesoderm to Form the Somites Formation of the Sclerotome and Dermomyotome Formation of the Membranous Somite and Resegmentation Chondrification Phase Ossification Phase Embryology of the Craniovertebral Junction Malformations of the Spine Disordered Gastrulation Malalignment of Somitic Columns Hemimetameric Shift Disordered Vertebral Formation Disordered Vertebral Segmentation Disordered Vertebral Alignment Failed Fusion of Sclerotome, Chondrification, or Ossification Centers Isolated Failure of Ossification and Growth Malformations of the Craniovertebral Junction Conclusion 2. Clinical Biomechanics of the Pediatric Craniocervical Junction and Subaxial Spine (Marcus L. Ware, Nalin Gupta, Peter P. Sun, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Review of Normal Biomechanics Craniocervical Junction: Normal Kinematics Subaxial Cervical Spine: Normal Kinematics Determinants of Stability at the Craniocervical Junction Determinants of Stability of the Subaxial Cervical Spine Special Pediatric Considerations Clinical Instability at the Craniocervical Junction Clinical Instability of the Subaxial Cervical Spine Conclusions 3. Common Pathological Conditions of the Pediatric Craniovertebral Junction and Cervical Spine Down Syndrome (Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Etiology Natural History Common Anatomical Idiosyncrasies Surgical Considerations Klippel-Feil Syndrome and Klippel-Feil Variant (Dan Fassett and Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Etiology Natural History Common Anatomical Idiosyncrasies Surgical Considerations Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Etiology Natural History Common Anatomical Idiosyncrasies Surgical Considerations Os Odontoideum (Paul Grabb) Etiology Natural History Common Anatomical Idiosyncrasies Surgical Considerations Common Skeletal Dysplasias (Jeff Atkinson and Douglas L. Brockmeyer Etiology Natural History Common Anatomical Idiosyncrasies Surgical Considerations 4. Traumatic Injuries of the Pediatric Craniocervical Junction (Marcus L. Ware, Kurtis I. Auguste, Nalin Gupta, Peter B. Sun, and Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Craniovertebral Junction Injuries Longitudinal Occiput C2 Subluxation Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation Translational Atlantoaxial Subluxation Odontoid Fractures C2 Pedicle Fractures Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries\ Ligamentous and Soft Tissue Injury Bony Anterior Column Injuries Bony Posterior Column Injures Combined Anterior and Posterior Column Injuries 5. Advanced Atlantoaxial Surgery in Children (Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Clinical Findings Management of Atlantoaxial Lesions Patient Evaluation Conservative Management Surgical Management and Decision Making Surgical Approaches Implants Bone Graft Materials External Orthoses Postoperative Follow-Up Radiographic Protocol Failed Fusions Postoperative Growth Potential An Advanced Technique for Atlantoaxial Arthrodesis Imaging and Image Analysis Screw Placement Strategies 6. Advanced Occipitocervical Surgery in Children (Douglas L. Brockmeyer) Clinical Findings Management of Craniovertebral Junction Lesions Conservative Management Surgical Management and Decision Making Surgical Approaches Implants Bone Graft Materials External Orthoses Postoperative Follow-Up An Advanced Technique for Occipitocervical Fusion 7. Advanced Surgery for the Subaxial Cervical Spine in Children Clinical Findings Management of Subaxial Cervical Spine Lesions Conservative Management Surgical Management and Decision Making Surgical Approaches Anterior Cervical Approach Cervical Anterolateral Approach Posterior Midline Approach Implants Anterior Plates Bone Graft Materials External Orthoses Postoperative Follow-Up Advanced Subaxial Cervical Spine Fusion Techniques
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