Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph v. 189)
By: Yayi Wei (author), Robert L. Brainard (author)Hardback
1 - 2 weeks availability
This book is a comprehensive guide to advanced processes and materials used in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). It is an important text for those new to the field as well as for current practitioners who want to broaden their understanding of this latest technology. The book can be used as course material for graduate students of electrical engineering, material sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and can also be used to train engineers involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits. It provides techniques for selecting critical materials (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion processes to ensure higher performance and lower defectivity at lower cost. This book also includes sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the resist pattern to reduce feature sizes and line-edge roughness. Finally, it describes the recent development of 193i in combination with double exposure and double patterning.
Preface; List of Abbreviations and Acronyms; 1 Immersion Lithography and its Challenges; 1.1 Basics of Photolithography; 1.1.1 Resolution of the exposure system; 1.1.2 Step and scan; 1.2 Immersion Lithography (193i) and Its Advantages; 1.2.1 Depth-of-focus improvement; 1.2.2 Water as the immersion fluid; 1.2.3 Hyper-NA and high refractive index immersion (193i+); 1.3 Challenges for the 193i Process; 1.3.1 Topcoat versus non-topcoat; 1.3.2 Immersion defectivity; 1.3.3 Imaging at hyper-NA; References; 2 Process Steps in the Track; 2.1 Coating Module; 2.1.1 Material dispense; 2.1.2 Viscosity of materials; 2.1.3 Film thickness; 2.1.4 Reduction of material consumption; 2.1.5 Coating imperfection and defects; 22.214.171.124 Comets; 126.96.36.199 Striations; 188.8.131.52 Edge bead and backside contamination; 2.1.6 Material drying at nozzle; 2.1.7 Alternative coating techniques; 2.2 Baking Module; 2.2.1 Temperature uniformity.
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- ID: 9780819475572
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