Advanced Structural Ceramics

Advanced Structural Ceramics

By: Kantesh Balani (author), Bikramjit Basu (author)Hardback

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Description

This book covers the area of advanced ceramic composites broadly, providing important introductory chapters to fundamentals, processing, and applications of advanced ceramic composites. Within each section, specific topics covered highlight the state of the art research within one of the above sections. The organization of the book is designed to provide easy understanding by students as well as professionals interested in advanced ceramic composites. The various sections discuss fundamentals of nature and characteristics of ceramics, processing of ceramics, processing and properties of toughened ceramics, high temperature ceramics, nanoceramics and nanoceramic composites, and bioceramics and biocomposites.

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About Author

Bikramjit Basu, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur. He is currently on leave at the Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India. His research interests include processing-structure-property correlation in structural ceramics, including nanoceramics and nanocomposites as well as biomaterials and tribology of advanced materials. In recognition of his contributions to the field of ceramic and biomaterials science, he has received noteworthy awards from the Indian National Academy of Engineering (2004), the Indian National Science Academy (2005), the Metallurgist of the Year Award (2010) from the Indian government, and the NASI - SCOPUS Young Scientist Award (2010) from Elsevier and the National Academy of Sciences, India (NASI). He was the recipient of the Robert L. Coble Award for Young Scholars from the American Ceramic Society in 2008. Kantesh Balani, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur. His research focuses on the processing and characterization of carbon nanotube (CNT) based biomaterials, energy materials, and correlating mechanics at multiple length scales. He has received several recognitions as a Young Scientist, as well as a Young Engineer, for his contributions in the field of materials science.

Contents

Preface xvii Foreword by Michel Barsoum xxiii About the Authors xxv Section One Fundamentals of Nature and Characteristics of Ceramics 1. Ceramics: Definition and Characteristics 3 1.1 Materials Classification 3 1.2 Historical Perspective; Definition and Classification of Ceramics 4 1.3 Properties of Structural Ceramics 8 1.4 Applications of Structural Ceramics 9 References 12 2. Bonding, Structure, and Physical Properties 14 2.1 Primary Bonding 15 2.1.1 Ionic Bonding 15 2.1.2 Covalent Bonding 18 2.1.3 Pauling s Rules 19 2.1.4 Secondary Bonding 21 2.2 Structure 21 2.2.1 NaCl-type Rock-Salt Structure 22 2.2.2 ZnS-Type Wurtzite Structure 22 2.2.3 ZnS-Type Zinc Blende Structure 23 2.2.4 CsCl Cesium Chloride Structure 23 2.2.5 CaF2 Fluorite Structure 23 2.2.6 Antifluorite Structure 24 2.2.7 Rutile Structure 24 2.2.8 Al2O3 Corundum Structure 24 2.2.9 Spinel Structure 25 2.2.10 Perovskite Structure 26 2.2.11 Ilmenite Structure 26 2.2.12 Silicate Structures 26 2.3 Oxide Ceramics 28 2.4 Non-Oxide Ceramics 30 References 33 3. Mechanical Behavior of Ceramics 34 3.1 Theory of Brittle Fracture 34 3.1.1 Theoretical Cohesive Strength 34 3.1.2 Inglis Theory 35 3.1.3 Griffith s Theory 37 3.1.4 Irwin s Theory 39 3.1.5 Concept of Fracture Toughness 39 3.2 Cracking in Brittle Materials 40 3.3 Strength Variability of Ceramics 42 3.4 Physics of the Fracture of Brittle Solids 42 3.4.1 Weakest Link Fracture Statistics 44 3.5 Basic Mechanical Properties 48 3.5.1 Vickers Hardness 48 3.5.2 Instrumented Indentation Measurements 48 3.5.3 Compressive Strength 50 3.5.4 Flexural Strength 51 3.5.5 Elastic Modulus 52 3.5.6 Fracture Toughness 53 3.5.6.1 Long Crack Methods 54 3.5.6.2 Fracture Toughness Evaluation Using Indentation Cracking 55 3.6 Toughening Mechanisms 59 References 63 Section Two Processing of Ceramics 4. Synthesis of High-Purity Ceramic Powders 67 4.1 Synthesis of ZrO2 Powders 67 4.2 Synthesis of TiB2 Powders 68 4.3 Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Powders 70 4.4 Synthesis of High-Purity Tungsten Carbide Powders 71 References 75 5. Sintering of Ceramics 76 5.1 Introduction 76 5.2 Classification 78 5.3 Thermodynamic Driving Force 79 5.4 Solid-State Sintering 82 5.5 Competition between Densification and Grain Growth 84 5.6 Liquid-Phase Sintering 88 5.7 Important Factors Infl uencing the Sintering Process 90 5.8 Powder Metallurgical Processes 92 5.8.1 Ball Milling 92 5.8.2 Compaction 94 5.8.2.1 Cold Pressing 94 5.8.2.2 Cold Isostatic Pressing 96 5.8.3 Pressureless Sintering 97 5.8.4 Reactive Sintering 98 5.8.5 Microwave Sintering 99 References 103 6. Thermomechanical Sintering Methods 105 6.1 Hot Pressing 105 6.2 Extrusion 108 6.3 Hot Isostatic Pressing 110 6.4 Hot Rolling 112 6.5 Sinter Forging 114 6.6 Spark Plasma Sintering 116 References 118 Section Three Surface Coatings 7. Environment and Engineering of Ceramic Materials 123 7.1 Environmental Influence on Properties of Engineering Ceramics 124 7.1.1 Oxidation Resistance 125 7.1.2 Corrosion Resistance 126 7.1.3 Creep Resistance 126 7.1.4 Hard Bearing Surfaces 126 7.1.5 Thermal and Electrical Insulation 126 7.1.6 Abrasion-Resistant Ceramics 127 7.1.7 Fretting Wear Resistance, Surface Fatigue, Impact Resistance 127 7.1.8 Erosion and Cavitation Resistance 127 7.2 Classification and Engineering of Ceramic Materials 128 7.2.1 Non-Oxide Ceramics 128 7.2.2 Oxide Ceramics 132 References 135 8. Thermal Spraying of Ceramics 137 8.1 Mechanism of Thermal Spraying 137 8.1.1 Advantages of Thermal Spraying 140 8.1.2 Disadvantages of Thermal Spraying 141 8.2 Classification of Thermal Spraying 141 8.2.1 Combustion Thermal Spraying 142 8.2.1.1 Flame (Powder or Wire) Spraying 142 8.2.1.2 High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying 144 8.2.1.3 Detonation Spray Technique 145 8.2.2 Electric Arc Spraying 148 8.2.3 Cold Spraying 149 8.2.4 Plasma Spraying 150 8.2.4.1 Atmospheric Plasma Spraying 152 8.2.4.2 Vacuum Plasma Spraying 154 8.3 Splat Formation and Spread 154 8.4 Near Net Shape Forming 156 8.5 Overview 157 References 158 9. Coatings and Protection of Structural Ceramics 160 9.1 Coatings 160 9.2 Protective Coatings 162 9.2.1 Biological Applications 162 9.3 Rocket Nozzle Inserts 163 9.4 Thermal Barrier Coatings 165 9.5 Wear Resistance 166 9.6 Corrosion Protection by Ceramics 168 9.7 Optically Transparent Ceramics 169 9.8 Ceramic Pottery and Sculptures 169 References 170 Section Four Processing and Properties of Toughened Ceramics 10. Toughness Optimization in Zirconia-Based Ceramics 175 10.1 Introduction 175 10.2 Transformation Characteristics of Tetragonal Zirconia 176 10.3 Phase Equilibria and Microstructure 177 10.4 Transformation Toughening 178 10.4.1 Thermodynamics of Transformation 179 10.4.2 Micromechanical Modeling 180 10.5 Stabilization of Tetragonal Zirconia 182 10.6 Production and Properties of Y-TZP Ceramics 183 10.7 Different Factors Infl uencing Transformation Toughening 184 10.7.1 Grain Size 187 10.7.2 Grain Shape and Grain Boundary Phase 188 10.7.3 Yttria Content 192 10.7.4 Yttria Distribution 193 10.7.5 MS Temperature 197 10.7.6 Transformation Zone Size and Shape 197 10.7.7 Residual Stress 199 10.8 Additional Toughening Mechanisms 199 10.8.1 Stress-Induced Microcracking 200 10.8.2 Ferroelastic Toughening 201 10.9 Coupled Toughening Response 203 10.10 Toughness Optimization in Y-TZP-Based Composites 203 10.10.1 Influence of Thermal Residual Stresses 206 10.10.2 Influence of Zirconia Matrix Stabilization 207 10.11 Outlook 208 References 208 11. S-Phase SiAlON Ceramics: Microstructure and Properties 215 11.1 Introduction 215 11.2 Materials Processing and Property Measurements 216 11.3 Microstructural Development 217 11.4 Mechanical Properties 220 11.4.1 Load-Dependent Hardness Properties 226 11.4.2 R-Curve Behavior 228 11.5 Concluding Remarks 230 References 232 12. Toughness and Tribological Properties of MAX Phases 234 12.1 Emergence of MAX Phases 234 12.2 Classification of MAX Phases 235 12.3 Damage Tolerance of MAX Phases 238 12.4 Wear of Ti3SiC2 MAX Phase 244 12.5 Concluding Remarks 254 References 254 Section Five High-Temperature Ceramics 13. Overview: High-Temperature Ceramics 259 13.1 Introduction 259 13.2 Phase Diagram and Crystal Structure 260 13.3 Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Bulk TiB2 261 13.3.1 Preparation of TiB2 Powder 261 13.3.2 Densification and Microstructure of Binderless TiB2 265 13.4 Use of Metallic Sinter-Additives on Densification and Properties 269 13.5 Influence of Nonmetallic Additives on Densification and Properties 271 13.6 Important Applications of Bulk TiB2-Based Materials 281 13.7 Concluding Remarks 281 References 283 14. Processing and Properties of TiB2 and ZrB2 with Sinter-Additives 286 14.1 Introduction 286 14.2 Materials Processing 287 14.3 TiB2 MoSi2 System 288 14.3.1 Densification, Microstructure, and Sintering Reactions 288 14.3.2 Mechanical Properties 288 14.3.3 Depth Sensing Instrumented Indentation Response 290 14.3.4 Residual Strain-Induced Property Degradation 293 14.3.5 Relationship between Indentation Work Done and Phase Assemblage 295 14.4 TiB2 TiSi2 System 296 14.4.1 Sintering Reactions and Densifi cation Mechanisms 296 14.4.2 Mechanical Properties 298 14.4.3 Residual Stress or Strain and Property Degradation 298 14.5 ZrB2 SiC TiSi2 Composites 300 14.6 Concluding Remarks 301 References 302 15. High-Temperature Mechanical and Oxidation Properties 305 15.1 Introduction 305 15.2 High-Temperature Property Measurements 309 15.3 High-Temperature Mechanical Properties 310 15.3.1 High-Temperature Flexural Strength 310 15.3.2 Hot Hardness Property 311 15.4 Oxidation Behavior of TiB2 MoSi2 312 15.5 Oxidation Behavior of TiB2 TiSi2 315 15.5.1 Oxidation Kinetics 315 15.5.2 Morphological Characteristics of Oxidized Surfaces 317 15.6 Concluding Remarks 317 References 318 Section Six Nanoceramic Composites 16. Overview: Relevance, Characteristics, and Applications of Nanostructured Ceramics 323 16.1 Introduction 323 16.2 Problems Associated with Synthesis of Nanosized Powders 326 16.2.1 Methods of Synthesis of Nanoscaled Ceramic Powders 326 16.2.2 Challenges Posed by the Typical Properties of Nanoscaled Powders 327 16.3 Challenges Faced during Processing 328 16.3.1 Problems Arising due to Fine Powders 328 16.3.2 Challenges Faced due to Agglomerated Powders 329 16.4 Processing of Bulk Nanocrystalline Ceramics 330 16.4.1 Processes Used for Developing Bulk Nanocrystalline Ceramics 330 16.4.2 Mechanisms Leading to Enhanced Sintering Kinetics on Pressure Application 331 16.5 Mechanical Properties of Bulk Ceramic Nanomaterials 332 16.5.1 Mechanical Properties 332 16.5.1.1 Hardness and Yield Strength 332 16.5.1.2 Fracture Strength and Fracture Toughness 335 16.5.1.3 Superplasticity 338 16.6 Applications of Nanoceramics 339 16.7 Conclusion and Outlook 341 References 343 17. Oxide Nanoceramic Composites 347 17.1 Overview 347 17.2 Al2O3-Based Nanocomposites 349 17.3 ZrO2-Based Nanocomposites 355 17.4 Case Study 356 17.4.1 Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal Nanoceramics 356 17.4.2 ZrO2 ZrB2 Nanoceramic Composites 357 References 363 18. Microstructure Development and Properties of Non-Oxide Ceramic Nanocomposites 366 18.1 Nanocomposites Based on Si3N4 366 18.2 Other Advanced Nanocomposites 371 18.2.1 Mullite SiC 371 18.2.2 Yttrium Aluminum Garnet SiC 371 18.2.3 SiC TiC 371 18.2.4 Hydroxyapatite ZrO2 Nanobiocomposites 371 18.2.5 Stress-Sensing Nanocomposites 372 18.3 WC-Based Nanocomposites 372 18.3.1 Background 372 18.3.2 WC ZrO2 Nanoceramic Composites 375 18.3.3 WC ZrO2 Co Nanocomposites 380 18.3.4 Toughness of WC ZrO2-Based Nanoceramic Composites 384 18.3.5 Comparison with Other Ceramic Nanocomposites 385 References 387 Section Seven Bioceramics and Biocomposites 19. Overview: Introduction to Biomaterials 393 19.1 Introduction 393 19.2 Hard Tissues 394 19.3 Some Useful Definitions and Their Implications 395 19.3.1 Biomaterial 395 19.3.2 Biocompatibility 397 19.3.3 Host Response 397 19.4 Cell Material Interaction 398 19.5 Bacterial Infection and Biofilm Formation 400 19.6 Different Factors Influencing Bacterial Adhesion 402 19.6.1 Material Factors 404 19.6.2 Bacteria-Related Factors 405 19.6.3 External Factors 406 19.7 Experimental Evaluation of Biocompatibility 406 19.8 Overview of Properties of Some Biomaterials 413 19.8.1 Coating on Metals 413 19.8.2 Glass-Ceramics-Based Biomaterials 417 19.9 Outlook 418 References 419 20. Calcium Phosphate-Based Bioceramic Composites 422 20.1 Introduction 422 20.2 Bioinert Ceramics 424 20.3 Calcium Phosphate-Based Biomaterials 425 20.4 Calcium Phosphate Mullite Composites 428 20.4.1 Mechanical Properties 430 20.4.2 Biocompatibility (In Vitro and In Vivo) 431 20.5 Hydroxyapatite Ti System 434 20.6 Enhancement of Antimicrobial Properties of Hydroxyapatite 434 20.6.1 Hydroxyapatite Ag System 437 20.6.2 Hydroxyapatite ZnO System 439 References 443 21. Tribological Properties of Ceramic Biocomposites 448 21.1 Introduction 448 21.2 Tribology of Ceramic Biocomposites 449 21.3 Tribological Properties of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite 450 21.3.1 Materials and Experiments 451 21.3.2 Effect of Lubrication on the Wear Resistance of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite 451 21.3.3 Surface Topography of Mullite-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite after Fretting Wear 454 21.4 Tribological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 454 21.4.1 Bulk Wear Resistance of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 454 21.4.2 Nanomechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 457 21.4.3 Nanoscratching of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes 461 21.5 Laser Surface Treatment of Calcium Phosphate Biocomposites 461 References 470 Index 472

Product Details

  • publication date: 11/11/2011
  • ISBN13: 9780470497111
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 504
  • ID: 9780470497111
  • weight: 848
  • ISBN10: 0470497114

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