Advances in Food Biotechnology

Advances in Food Biotechnology

By: Ravishankar Rai V. (editor)Hardback

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Description

The application of biotechnology in the food sciences has led to an increase in food production and enhanced the quality and safety of food. Food biotechnology is a dynamic field and the continual progress and advances have not only dealt effectively with issues related to food security but also augmented the nutritional and health aspects of food. Advances in Food Biotechnology provides an overview of the latest development in food biotechnology as it relates to safety, quality and security. The seven sections of the book are multidisciplinary and cover the following topics: * GMOs and food security issues * Applications of enzymes in food processing * Fermentation technology * Functional food and nutraceuticals * Valorization of food waste * Detection and control of foodborne pathogens * Emerging techniques in food processing Bringing together experts drawn from around the world, the book is a comprehensive reference in the most progressive field of food science and will be of interest to professionals, scientists and academics in the food and biotech industries. The book will be highly resourceful to governmental research and regulatory agencies and those who are studying and teaching food biotechnology.

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Contents

Contributors xxi Preface xxvii I GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY: ARE GMOS THE SOLUTION TO THE FOOD SECURITY ISSUE? 1 1 Biotechnological Approaches for Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crop Production 3 Kathleen L. Hefferon and Abdullah Makhzoum 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 The Case for Biofortified Food 3 1.2.1 Biofortified Rice 4 1.2.2 Biofortified Maize and Cassava 4 1.2.3 Biofortified Wheat 5 1.2.4 Oilcrops Biofortified with Omega-3 Fatty Acids 5 1.3 Nutritionally Enhanced Feed Crops 6 1.4 Plants with Other Health Benefits 6 1.5 Biopharmaceuticals Produced in Plants 6 1.6 Genome Editing for Nutritionally Enhanced Plants 7 1.7 Epigenetics and Nutritionally Enhanced Plants 7 1.7.1 Epigenetics in Human Nutrition and Genetic Diseases 8 1.7.2 Epigenetic Approaches to Improving Crops for Human Health 8 1.8 Risk Assessment and Regulation of Nutritionally Enhanced Crops 9 1.9 Conclusions 9 References 10 2 Current and Emerging Applications of Metabolomics in the Field of Agricultural Biotechnology 13 Camilla B. Hill, Daniel A. Dias, and Ute Roessner 2.1 Introduction 13 2.1.1 Metabolomics and Agriculture 13 2.1.2 Metabolomic Technologies 14 2.2 Metabolomics of Cereals for Food Production 16 2.2.1 Targeted Metabolomics 16 2.2.2 Untargeted Metabolomics 16 2.2.3 Safety Evaluation of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops 17 2.3 Metabolomics and its Application in the Production of Wine 18 2.3.1 In the Vineyard 18 2.3.2 Wine Fermentation 20 2.3.3 Wine Characterization 21 2.4 Final Remarks 23 Acknowledgements 23 References 23 3 Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Foods 27 Gijs A. Kleter and Maryvon Y. Noordam 3.1 Introduction 27 3.2 Safety Assessment of GM-Crop-Derived Foods 28 3.3 Recurrent Items Addressed during the Food and Feed Safety Assessment 28 3.3.1 Molecular Characterization 29 3.3.2 Comparative Analysis of Agronomic, Phenotypic and Compositional Characteristics 30 3.3.3 Potential Toxicity 31 3.3.4 Potential Allergenicity 32 3.3.5 Nutritional Assessment 34 3.4 Outlook and Future Challenges 35 3.5 Conclusions 36 Acknowledgements 36 References 36 4 Towards a Universal Molecular Approach for the Quality Control of New Foodstuffs 37 Andrea Galimberti, Anna Sandionigi, Antonia Bruno, Ilaria Bruni, Michela Barbuto, Maurizio Casiraghi, and Massimo Labra 4.1 Food Quality and Safety Assessment in the Era of Genomics 37 4.2 DNA Barcoding: General Characteristics and Applications for the Analysis of Modern Foodstuffs 38 4.3 Microbiological Composition of Foodstuffs 38 4.3.1 Fermentation 40 4.3.2 Biopreservation 41 4.3.3 Functionalization 42 4.4 Pathogenic Microorganisms and Food Spoilage 43 4.5 Towards a Molecular Identification of Food-Related Microorganisms 44 4.6 Towards a Standardized Molecular Identification of Food Raw Materials 45 4.6.1 From Molecular-Based Approaches to DNA Barcoding 45 4.6.2 Advantages and Limitations of Food DNA Barcoding in Food Traceability 48 4.6.3 DNA Barcoding and Food Traceability: An Overview 49 4.7 Next-Generation Technologies to Characterize Complex Food Matrices and their Microbiome 50 4.8 Conclusions 51 References 51 5 Mass Spectrometry-Based Approaches in Food Safety 61 Pasquale Ferranti and Gianluca Picariello 5.1 Background 61 5.2 Instrumentation 61 5.3 Mass Spectrometry and Food Safety 63 5.4 Effects of Technological Processing 64 5.5 Microbiological Issues 65 5.6 Genetically Modified Organisms 65 5.7 Food Allergy 66 5.8 Food Metabolomics 67 5.9 Food Lipidomics 67 5.10 Current Challenges and Perspectives 68 References 68 6 Feeding the World: Are Biotechnologies the Solution? 71 Yves Bertheau 6.1 Introduction 71 6.2 Current Situation 72 6.2.1 Is the Diagnosis of World Population Growth Shared? 73 6.2.2 How Many People Can Our Earth Provide For? 74 6.2.3 Is There a Causal Relationship Between Increasing Population Growth and Food Needs? 74 6.2.4 Food as an Element of Speculation and Enrichment 76 6.3 Proposed Solutions 76 6.3.1 Common and General Solutions 77 6.3.2 Reduction of Losses along Supply Chains 78 6.3.3 Increase in the Cultivated Surfaces 80 6.3.4 Increase in Output 81 6.3.5 Biotechnologies to Nourish the World 85 6.4 Conclusion 94 References 95 II APPLICATION OF ENZYMES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY 103 7 Application of Microbial Enzymes in the Food Industry 105 Alane Beatriz Vermelho, Veronica Cardoso, Rodrigo Pires Nascimento, Anderson S. Pinheiro, and Igor Rodrigues de Almeida 7.1 Introduction 105 7.2 The Main Enzymes 106 7.2.1 Hydrolases (EC3) 106 7.2.2 Lyases (EC4) 108 7.2.3 Transferases (EC2) 109 7.3 Main Microorganism Producers of Enzymes 111 7.4 Marine Microbial Enzymes 115 7.5 Dairy Industry 116 7.6 Microbial Enzymes Applied in the Beverage Industry 118 7.6.1 Pectinases 119 7.7 Animal Feed 121 7.8 Targeting Microbial Enzymes of Industrial Interest 123 7.9 Mathematical Models for Enhanced Enzyme Production 124 Acknowledgements 124 References 125 8 Enzymatic Modification of Proteins and Starches for Gluten-Free and Low-Glycaemic-Index Foods for Special Dietary Uses 133 A.M. Calderon de la Barca, A.R. Islas-Rubio, N.G. Heredia, and F. Cabrera-Chavez 8.1 Introduction 133 8.2 Foods for Special Dietary Uses 134 8.3 Wheat Constituents that may Trigger Adverse Reactions 134 8.4 Gluten Proteins: Role in Pathogenesis of Gluten-Related Disorders 135 8.5 Enzymatic Modification of Proteins 136 8.5.1 Hydrolysis of Gluten 137 8.5.2 Transamidation and Transpeptidation of Gluten Proteins 138 8.6 Polysaccharides and the Glucose Response 139 8.6.1 Polysaccharide Hydrolysis by Human Digestion 139 8.6.2 Glucose Response Depending on Food Matrices 140 8.7 Polysaccharide Enzymatic Modification 140 8.7.1 Saccharidases for Producing Resistant Starches 140 8.7.2 Enzyme Cyclization to Reduce Starch Digestion 141 8.8 Conclusions 141 References 141 9 Enzyme Immobilization and its Application in the Food Industry 145 Ahmad Homaei 9.1 Introduction 145 9.2 History of Enzyme Immobilization 145 9.3 Carrier Materials for Enzyme Immobilization 146 9.3.1 Biopolymers 146 9.3.2 Synthetic Polymers 146 9.3.3 Hydrogels 146 9.3.4 Inorganic Supports 147 9.3.5 Smart Polymers 147 9.3.6 Conducting Polymers 147 9.3.7 Gold Nanoparticles 147 9.3.8 Magnetic Nanoparticles 148 9.4 Enzyme Immobilization Techniques 148 9.4.1 Protein Adsorption 149 9.4.2 Covalent Binding 149 9.4.3 Physical Entrapment 151 9.4.4 Bioaffinity Interactions 152 9.4.5 Immobilized Multienzymes and Enzyme-Cell Co-Immobilizates 152 9.5 Commercialization and Use of Immobilized Enzymes in the Food Industry 153 9.5.1 Applications of Immobilized Protease 153 9.5.2 Applications of Immobilized Amino Acylase 155 9.5.3 Applications of Immobilized Glucose Isomerase 156 9.5.4 Applications of Immobilized Glucosidases Enzymes 156 9.5.5 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes in the Flavour Industry 158 9.6 Conclusions 159 References 159 10 Enzymes for Food and Beverage Industries: Current Situation, Challenges and Perspectives 165 Antonella Amore and Vincenza Faraco 10.1 Introduction 165 10.2 Application of Enzymes in Food and Beverage Industries 166 10.2.1 Glycoside Hydrolases 166 10.2.2 Pectinase 173 10.2.3 Proteases 173 10.2.4 Lipase 174 10.2.5 Laccase 176 10.2.6 Enzymes for Production of Functional Foods 177 10.3 Tools to Enhance Use of Food Enzymes 178 10.3.1 Production of Food Enzymes from Recombinant Microrganisms 178 10.3.2 Protein and Metabolic Engineering 179 10.3.3 Other Techniques to Enhance Enzymes for the Food Industry 181 10.4 Conclusions, Challenges and Perspectives 182 References 183 11 Enzymes Inhibitors: Food and Non-Food Impacts 191 Nana Akyaa Ackaah-Gyasi, Yi Zhang, and Benjamin K. Simpson 11.1 Introduction 191 11.2 Types of Enzyme Inhibitors 191 11.3 Sources of Enzyme Inhibitors 194 11.4 Isolation and Purification of some Naturally Occurring Enzyme Inhibitors 196 11.5 Mechanisms of Action 196 11.6 Food Uses of Enzyme Inhibitors 198 11.7 Health and Biomedical Uses of Inhibitors 200 11.8 Future of Enzyme Inhibitors 201 References 202 12 Proteases as a Tool in Food Biotechnology 207 Olga Luisa Tavano 12.1 Introduction 207 12.2 Protease Characteristics 207 12.3 Seeking a More Appropriate Protease 209 12.3.1 Finding the Best Source 210 12.3.2 Managing Protease Performance 211 12.4 Modifications in Functional and Sensorial Properties of Food Proteins 212 12.4.1 Functional Properties 212 12.4.2 Taste Modifications 213 12.5 Cheese-Making 213 12.6 Food Additives 214 12.7 Special Diets 214 12.7.1 Reduction of Food Protein Allergy 215 12.7.2 Liberation of Bioactive Peptides 216 12.8 Conclusion 217 References 217 III RECENT ADVANCES IN FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 221 13 Application of Metabolic Engineering in Industrial Fermentative Process 223 Mahbuba Rahman 13.1 Introduction 223 13.2 Metabolic Engineering Strategies for Microbial Strain Improvement 224 13.3 Stages and Tools of Metabolic Engineering 225 13.3.1 Synthesis 225 13.3.2 Analysis 226 13.4 Applications of Metabolic Engineering in Fermentation-Based Food Industries 229 13.5 Yeasts 232 13.5.1 Alcoholic beverages 232 13.5.2 Baker s Yeast 234 13.5.3 Xylitol 235 13.5.4 Isoprenoids 235 13.5.5 Food Supplement Iron 235 13.6 Bacteria 235 13.6.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) 235 13.6.2 Escherichia Coli 238 13.7 Perspectives 239 References 240 14 Isolation and Selection of Conventional and Non-Conventional Fermentative Yeasts 243 Joao Simoes and Ana Catarina Gomes 14.1 Introduction 243 14.2 Microorganism Relevance in Wine Production 244 14.3 Methods to Recover Fermentative Yeasts 247 14.4 Identification of Fermentative Species 248 14.5 Strain Identification 249 14.6 Fermentative Yeast Phenotypic Characterization 249 14.7 Yeast Improvement Strategies 251 14.7.1 Production and Selection of Non-GMO Yeasts 251 14.7.2 Production of GMO Yeasts 253 14.8 From the Genome to Phenotype 254 14.8.1 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) 255 14.8.2 Selective Genotyping 255 14.8.3 Association Mapping 255 14.8.4 High-Resolution QTL Mapping 256 14.9 Future Perspectives and Challenges 256 References 257 15 Multifunctional Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultures to Improve Quality and Nutritional Benefits in Dairy Products 263 Domenico Carminati, Aurora Meucci, Flavio Tidona, Miriam Zago, and Giorgio Giraffa 15.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Ecology, Taxonomy and Metabolic Activities 263 15.2 Role of LAB in Dairy Products 265 15.2.1 LAB as Dominant Microbiota in Dairy Products 265 15.2.2 LAB as Functional Cultures 267 15.3 LAB Selection and Improvement 268 15.3.1 Classical Selection and Characterization 268 15.3.2 Genomic and Metagenomic Selection 270 15.3.3 Metabolic Engineering: LAB as Cell Factories 270 15.3.4 Exploitation of GMOs and Major Concerns 271 15.4 Final Remarks 271 References 272 16 New Biotechnological Approaches in Sourdough Bread Production Regarding Starter Culture Applications 277 Stavros Plessas, Ioanna Mantzourani, Argyro Bekatorou, Athanasios Alexopoulos, and Eugenia Bezirtzoglou 16.1 Introduction 277 16.2 Effect of Sourdough on Product Quality 278 16.2.1 Effect on Textural and Sensory Properties 278 16.2.2 Influence on Nutritional Value 278 16.3 Application of Starter Cultures for Sourdough Bread-Making 278 16.3.1 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Sourdough Starter Cultures 278 16.3.2 Mixed Sourdough Starter Cultures 279 16.3.3 Novel Sourdough Starter Cultures 280 16.3.4 Enzymes in Sourdough Bread Production 281 16.3.5 Immobilized Starter Cultures in Sourdough Bread Production 282 16.3.6 Application of Sourdough for Gluten-Free Bread Production 282 References 283 17 New Biotechnologies for Wine Fermentation and Ageing 287 Antonio Morata and Jose A. Suarez-Lepe 17.1 The Return of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts to Oenology 287 17.2 Influence of Yeasts on Wine Ageing 295 17.2.1 Emerging Technologies for Controlling Microorganisms in Grapes and Wines 295 17.2.2 Systems Biology and Metabolomics in the Selection of S. cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Strains for Wine Production 295 17.2.3 Biogenic Amine Production by S. cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts: Detection and Control Methods 296 17.2.4 Use of Non-Traditional Fining Agents and their Impact on Wine Attributes 296 17.3 Future Possibilities 296 17.4 Conclusions 297 References 297 18 Yeast Biotechnology 303 Julie Kellershohn and Inge Russell 18.1 The Market for Yeast and Yeast Products 303 18.2 The Baking Industry 303 18.3 Brewing and Distilling Yeast Developments 304 18.4 Sake Yeast Developments 305 18.5 Wine Production and the Creation of Engineered Malolactic Yeast (ML01) 305 18.6 Food Yeast 305 18.6.1 Mineral-Enriched Yeast 305 18.6.2 Yeast Byproducts 306 18.7 Soy Sauce Fermentation 306 18.8 Chymosin for Cheese Production 306 18.9 Flavour Compounds Produced Using Yeast 307 18.10 Carotenoids from Yeast 307 18.11 Saccharomyces Yeast in Non-Food Developments 307 18.12 The Synthetic Yeast Project 307 18.13 The Future 308 References 308 IV FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICALS: NUTRITION, HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS 311 19 Bioencapsulation Technologies for Incorporating Bioactive Components into Functional Foods 313 Kasipathy Kailasapathy 19.1 Health and Functional Foods 313 19.2 Need for Encapsulation 313 19.3 Bioencapsulation Techniques for Administration and Delivery of Bioactive Components 314 19.3.1 Encapsulates 314 19.3.2 Structured Delivery Systems 314 19.3.3 Encapsulation Techniques 315 19.4 Applications: Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Biofunctional Ingredients in Functional Foods: Selected Examples 320 19.4.1 Fish Oils 320 19.4.2 Anti-Oxidants, Pigments and Vitamins 321 19.4.3 Bioactive Oils 325 19.4.4 Antimicrobial Bioactive Agents 326 19.5 Conclusion and Future Trends 328 References 329 20 Gut Microbiota and Polyphenols: A Strict Connection Enhancing Human Health 335 Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, and Antonio d Acierno 20.1 State of the Art 335 20.2 Polyphenols 337 20.2.1 Flavonols 337 20.2.2 Flavanones 338 20.2.3 Flavan-3-ols and Procyanidins 338 20.2.4 Isoflavones 339 20.2.5 Non-Flavonoid Phenolics 339 20.2.6 Lignans 339 20.2.7 Hydroxycinnamates 339 20.2.8 Stilbenes 340 20.2.9 Benzoic Acids, Benzoates and Benzoic Acid Esters 340 20.3 Gut Metabotypes and Polyphenols 340 20.4 Influence of Phenolic Compounds on Microbiota Composition 343 20.5 Interaction between Specific Probiotics, Microbiota and Vegetal Sources 344 20.6 Conclusions 345 References 345 21 Improving Probiotics for Functional Foods 351 Lorena Ruiz, Miguel Gueimonde, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Abelardo Margolles, and Borja Sanchez 21.1 Introduction 351 21.2 Technological Factors 352 21.2.1 Strain Production Conditions, Freezing and Drying 352 21.2.2 Food Manufacturing Conditions and Final Product Composition 352 21.2.3 Food Matrix Components and Other Microorganisms 353 21.3 Physiological Factors 353 21.3.1 Acid pH 353 21.3.2 Intestinal Enzymes 354 21.3.3 Bile 354 21.4 Improving Probiotic Strains I: Strain Selection 354 21.5 Improving Probiotic Strains II: Stress Adaptation 355 21.6 Improving Probiotic Strains III: Strain Production and Food Design 357 21.6.1 Strain Production 357 21.6.2 Food Design 359 21.7 Improving Probiotic Strains IV: Gene Modification 360 21.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 361 Acknowledgements 362 References 362 22 Production of Single-Cell Oil Containing Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids 369 Kianoush Khosravi-Darani, Paliz Koohy-Kamaly, Houshang Nikoopour, and Seyedeh Zeinab Asadi 22.1 Introduction 369 22.2 Biochemistry of SCO 370 22.3 Microorganisms Producing SCO 370 22.3.1 Mortierella and M. Alpina 370 22.4 Systems of Cultivation 371 22.4.1 Solid-State Fermentation for SCO Production 371 22.4.2 Submerged Fermentation Systems for SCO Production 373 22.5 Commercial Production of SCO 373 22.5.1 Commercial Production of ARA-Rich SCO 373 22.5.2 Commercial Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich SCO 374 22.6 Recovery and Purification of PUFA from SCO 375 22.6.1 Safety of PUFA Consumption 375 22.6.2 Microencapsulation of PUFA 375 22.6.3 Metabolic Engineering of PUFA Production 376 22.7 Conclusion 376 References 377 23 Biotechnological Production of Oligosaccharides: Advances and Challenges 381 Diana B. Muniz-Marquez, Juan C. Contreras, Raul Rodriguez, Solange I. Mussatto, Jose A. Teixeira, and Cristobal N. Aguilar 23.1 Introduction 381 23.2 Beneficial Effects of Oligosaccharides 381 23.2.1 Stimulating Effect on Activity of Probiotic Microorganisms 382 23.2.2 Cancer Prevention or Therapy 382 23.2.3 Decreased Levels of Cholesterol and Triglycerides 383 23.3 Types of Oligosaccharides 383 23.3.1 Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) 383 23.3.2 Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) 384 23.3.3 Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) 384 23.3.4 Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOS) 385 23.3.5 Inulins 385 23.3.6 Pectic Oligosaccharides (POS) 385 23.4 Other Enzymes used for the Biosynthesis of Oligosaccharides 385 23.4.1 Glycosidases (GH) 385 23.4.2 Glycosyltransferases (GTs) 386 23.5 Microbial Production of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides 386 23.6 Yeast Strains used in Galactooligosaccharide Production from Lactose 386 23.7 Analysis of Oligosaccharides 386 23.7.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) 386 23.7.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) 387 23.7.3 Gas Chromatography (GC) 387 23.7.4 Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) 387 23.7.5 MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis 387 23.8 New Approaches for Purification of Oligosaccharides 387 23.8.1 Gel Chromatography 387 23.8.2 Ethanol Precipitation 387 23.8.3 Membrane-Based Techniques 387 23.8.4 Nanofiltration 388 23.8.5 Electrofiltration 388 23.8.6 Ultrafiltration 388 23.9 Emerging Trends in the Production of Novel Oligosaccharides 388 23.9.1 Gentiooligosaccharides (GeOS) 388 23.9.2 Glucooligosaccharides (GluOS) 388 23.10 Concluding Remarks 388 Acknowledgements 388 References 388 V VALORIZATION OF FOOD WASTE USING BIOTECHNOLOGY 393 24 Biotechnological Exploitation of Brewery Solid Wastes for Recovery or Production of Value-Added Products 395 Argyro Bekatorou, Stavros Plessas, and Ioanna Mantzourani 24.1 Introduction 395 24.2 Generation and Physicochemical Characteristics of Brewery Solid Wastes 397 24.3 Value-Added Bio-Products from Brewery Solid Wastes 399 24.3.1 SCP and Enriched Animal Feeds 399 24.3.2 Functional Food Ingredients 400 24.3.3 Multi-Purpose Yeast Extracts 405 24.3.4 Organic Acids 406 24.3.5 Microbial Polymers 407 24.3.6 Biosorbent Materials 407 24.3.7 Immobilized Cell Biocatalysts 408 24.4 Conclusions 408 References 409 25 Value-Added Utilization of Agro-Industrial Residues 415 Sigrid Kusch, Chibuike C. Udenigwe, Cristina Cavinato, Marco Gottardo, and Federico Micolucci 25.1 Introduction 415 25.2 Occurrence and Characteristics of Food Waste 417 25.2.1 Categories and Scales of Agro-Industrial Byproducts 417 25.2.2 Main Material Characteristics and Key Constituents, and Effects on Possible Valorization 418 25.3 Current and Emerging Food Waste Valorization Strategies 419 25.3.1 First-Generation Valorization Options 419 25.3.2 Second-Generation Valorization of Agro-Industrial Residues 421 25.4 A Spotlight on Functional Foods 421 25.4.1 From Byproducts to Functional Ingredients 421 25.4.2 Functional Components of Food Byproducts 422 25.4.3 Prospects and Challenges of using Food Byproducts as Functional Foods 423 25.5 Concluding Remarks 424 References 424 26 Cascaded Valorization of Food Waste using Bioconversions as Core Processes 427 Linsey Garcia-Gonzalez, Sebastiaan Bijttebier, Stefan Voorspoels, Maarten Uyttebroek, Kathy Elst, Winnie Dejonghe, Yamini Satyawali, Deepak Pant, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, and Heleen De Wever 26.1 Food Waste: Tomorrow s Raw Materials? 427 26.2 Characterization of Biomass on a Molecular Level 428 26.3 Extraction of High-Value Compounds 430 26.4 Bioconversions of Food Waste using Enzyme Technology 431 26.5 Bioconversions of Food Waste using Fermentation Technology 433 26.6 Electricity Generation using Microbial Fuel Cells 434 26.7 Conclusions 436 Acknowledgements 436 References 437 27 Potential of Fruits Processing Wastes for Fungal Production of Multi-Enzymes Complexes 443 A.B. Diaz, I. Caro, I. de Ory, and A. Blandino 27.1 Food Processing Wastes as Substrates for SSF 443 27.2 Hydrolytic Enzymes Production from Fruit-Processing Wastes 445 27.3 SSF on Fruit-Processing Wastes in Bioreactors 447 27.4 Application of Hydrolytic Multi-Enzyme Complexes 449 27.5 Use of Enzyme Immobilization Strategies 450 27.6 Conclusions 451 References 451 VI FOOD SAFETY: DETECTION AND CONTROL OF FOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS 455 28 Emergent Strategies for Detection and Control of Biofilms in Food Processing Environments 457 Heidy M.W. den Besten, Yichen Ding, Tjakko Abee, and Liang Yang 28.1 Introduction 457 28.2 Biofilm-Associated Problems in Food Processing Environments 457 28.3 Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Major Food Pathogens 457 28.4 Mechanisms of Biofilm Resistance 460 28.4.1 Resistance Mechanisms of Monospecies Biofilms 460 28.4.2 Resistance Mechanisms of Multiple Species Biofilms 461 28.5 Novel Approaches for Biofilm Detection 461 28.5.1 Diagnosis of VBNC Biofilm Cells 461 28.5.2 Real-Time Biofilm Monitoring Tools 462 28.6 Biofilm Control Strategies in Food Industry 462 28.6.1 Antifouling Surface Coatings 462 28.6.2 Cleaning and Disinfectant Treatment 463 28.6.3 Phage Treatment 464 28.6.4 Interference of Cell-to-Cell Communications 465 28.6.5 Biofilm dispersal 466 28.7 Conclusions 466 Acknowledgements 466 References 466 29 Molecular Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Food-Borne Pathogens 471 Gulam Rusul and Li-Oon Chuah 29.1 Introduction 471 29.2 Molecular Detection and Identification of Food-Borne Pathogens 472 29.2.1 Nucleic Acid Hybridization 472 29.2.2 Polymerase Chain Amplification 475 29.2.3 Sequencing-Based Identification Methods 479 29.2.4 Non-Nucleic Acid-Based Methods 482 29.2.5 Single-Cell Analysis 482 29.3 Molecular Typing Techniques 483 29.3.1 Ribotyping 483 29.3.2 Restriction Enzyme Analysis (REA) 484 29.3.3 PCR-Based Typing Methods 484 29.3.4 DNA Sequencing-Based Typing Methods 486 29.4 Criteria to Consider when Choosing a Method 486 29.5 Sample Preparation for the Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens 487 29.6 Conclusions 487 References 488 30 Non-Thermal Food Preservation: Control of Food-Borne Pathogens through Active Food Packaging and Nanotechnology 499 Paula Judith Perez Espitia and Rejane Andrade Batista 30.1 Introduction 499 30.2 Polymeric Matrixes and Methods of Food Packaging 500 30.2.1 Casting Method 501 30.2.2 Extrusion 502 30.3 Controlling Food-Borne Pathogens through Active Food Packaging 504 30.4 Nanotechnology for Antimicrobial Food Packaging 506 30.5 Safety Issues 506 Acknowledgements 508 References 508 31 Strategies for Advantageous Antimicrobial Activity by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria: Higher Yield, Enhanced Activity and Successful Application in Foods 511 Myrto-Panagiota Zacharof 31.1 Introduction 511 31.2 Bacteriocin Uses and Demands of a Knowledge-Driven Economy 511 31.3 Strategies for Advantageous Production of Bacteriocins 512 31.3.1 Physicochemical Conditions Optimization 512 31.3.2 Recovery Strategies Development 515 31.4 Synergistic Action of Bacteriocins for Enhanced Activity 517 31.4.1 Physical Means of Treatment 517 31.4.2 Chemicals Means of Treatment 517 31.5 Application of Bacteriocins in Foods: Examples and Case Studies 519 31.6 Conclusions 521 References 521 32 The Role of Phages in Food-Borne Pathogen Detection 527 Eoghan Nevin, Aidan Coffey, and Jim O Mahony 32.1 Introduction 527 32.2 Methods of Phage Detection 527 32.2.1 Reporter Phage Systems 527 32.2.2 Indicator Phage Systems 529 32.2.3 Phage-Based Biosensors 529 32.3 Food-Borne Pathogens Detected by Phage Assays 530 32.3.1 E. coli O157 530 32.3.2 Listeria Monocytogenes 531 32.3.3 Norovirus 532 32.4 Surface Plasmon Resonance and Phages 533 32.5 Practicalities of Future Phage Use 533 32.5.1 Advantages and Drawbacks of Phage-Based Detection 533 32.5.2 The Future of Phage-Based Detection 534 Acknowledgements 535 References 535 VII EMERGING TECHNIQUES IN FOOD PROCESSING 539 33 Applications of Micro- and Nanofluidics in the Food Industry 541 Fabrizio Sarghini 33.1 Introduction 541 33.2 Physical Bases of Microfluidics 542 33.2.1 Drops in Microfluidic Devices 542 33.2.2 Electrokinetics 544 33.3 Applications 545 33.3.1 Microfluidics for Food Safety and Analysis 546 33.3.2 Microencapsulation, Food Emulsions and Active Compounds Controlled Release 546 33.4 Basic Microfluidic Devices for Food Analysis and Food Processing 548 33.4.1 Micropumps 548 33.4.2 Micromixers 549 33.4.3 Microvalves 551 33.4.4 Detection Systems 551 33.4.5 Devices for Droplet and Microcapsule Generation 552 33.5 Perspectives and Challenges 559 References 560 34 Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Decontamination of Foods 565 N.N. Misra, Annalisa Segat, and P.J. Cullen 34.1 Introduction 565 34.2 NTP Fundamentals 566 34.2.1 Plasma Physics and Chemistry 566 34.2.2 Plasma Sources 567 34.3 Plasma Microbiological Interactions 568 34.4 Plasma Food Interactions 569 34.4.1 Plant-Based Foods 569 34.4.2 Animal-Based Foods 570 34.5 Challenges in NTP Processing of Foods 571 34.6 Conclusions and Future Trends 572 34.7 Acknowledgement 572 References 572 35 Electrochemical Processes During High-Voltage Electric Pulses and their Importance in Food Processing Technology 575 Gintautas Saulis, Raminta Rodaite -Ris evic iene , Viktorija Skaidrute Dainauskaite , and Rita Saule 35.1 Introduction 575 35.2 Theoretical Background 576 35.2.1 Primary Cathodic Half-Reactions 576 35.2.2 Primary Anodic Half-Reactions 576 35.2.3 Secondary Chemical Reactions 577 35.3 Consequences of Electrochemical Processes 578 35.3.1 Gas Evolution 578 35.3.2 Reduction of Cell Viability 578 35.3.3 pH Changes 579 35.3.4 Release of the Metal Ions from the Electrode 582 35.3.5 Influence of Metal Ions on the Biochemical Reactions 583 35.3.6 ROS Generation 583 35.3.7 Complexation of Metal Ions Released with Molecules Present in the Solution 584 35.3.8 Conductivity Changes 585 35.3.9 Increase in the Roughness of the Electrode Surface 585 35.3.10 Quenching of Fluorescence 585 35.4 Methods of Reducing Electrochemical Reaction Intensity and Reaction Consequences 586 35.5 Conclusion 587 Acknowledgements 587 References 587 36 Microencapsulation in Food Biotechnology by a Spray-Drying Process 593 Berta N. Estevinho and Fernando Rocha 36.1 Introduction 593 36.2 Microencapsulation in Food Biotechnology 594 36.2.1 Probiotics 594 36.2.2 Flavours 595 36.2.3 Lipids 596 36.2.4 Anti-Oxidants 596 36.2.5 Vitamins 597 36.2.6 Enzymes 597 36.2.7 Dyes 598 36.2.8 Stabilizers 598 36.2.9 Summary 598 36.3 Microencapsulation Concepts 599 36.3.1 Encapsulating Agents 599 36.3.2 Microencapsulation Techniques 599 36.4 Spray-Drying Process 600 36.5 Kinetic Mechanisms of Controlled Release 602 36.6 Conclusions 603 Acknowledgements 603 References 603 37 Nanofibre Encapsulation of Active Ingredients and their Controlled Release 607 Filiz Altay and Nagihan Okutan 37.1 Introduction 607 37.2 Encapsulation by Electrospinning 609 37.3 Applications of Electrospun Nanofibre-Encapsulated Ingredients 611 37.4 Controlled Release from Nanofibres 611 37.5 Conclusion and Future Trends 614 Acknowledgements 614 References 614 38 Applications of Nanobiotechnology in the Food Industry 617 Jamuna Bai Aswathanarayan and Ravishankar Rai V. 38.1 Introduction 617 38.2 Nanobiotechnology in Food Packaging: Improved, Intelligent and Active Packaging 618 38.2.1 Improved Food Packaging 619 38.2.2 Active Packaging 620 38.2.3 Intelligent Packaging 622 38.2.4 Nanocoatings in Food Packaging 622 38.3 Nanotechnology for Delivery of Bioactives and Nutraceuticals 623 38.3.1 Nanoencapsulation Methods 623 38.3.2 Application of Nanoencapsulation Techniques in Food Processing 623 38.4 Nanobiosensors: Detection of Food-Relevant Analytes 625 38.4.1 Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens 626 38.4.2 Detection of Contaminants 628 38.4.3 Detection of Allergens 628 38.4.4 Predicting Shelf Life 629 38.4.5 Food Traceability 629 38.5 Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Nanotechnology Applications 630 38.6 Conclusion 630 References 630 39 Recent Advances in and Applications of Encapsulated Microbial and Non-Microbial Active Agents in Food and Beverage Manufacture 635 Viktor Nedovic,i Branko Bugarski, Fani Mantzouridou, Adamantini Paraskevopoulou, Eleni Naziri, Thomas Koupantsis, Kata Trifkovic i, Ivana Drvenica, Bojana Balanc , and Verica Dord evic i 39.1 Introduction 635 39.2 Microbial Food Culture Encapsulation as a Biotechnological Process Tool 636 39.3 Encapsulation for Enhanced In Vivo Bioactive Compound Bioavailability and Improved Aroma 637 39.4 Food-Specific Materials and Methods/Techniques for Encapsulation 642 39.4.1 Proteins as Materials for Encapsulation 642 39.4.2 Lipids as Materials for Encapsulation 644 39.4.3 Carbohydrates as Materials for Encapsulation 646 39.4.4 Other Materials for Encapsulation/Immobilization 648 39.5 Examples of Encapsulated Cell Technology in Fermentation Processes 649 39.5.1 Beer Fermentation 649 39.5.2 Wine Fermentation 651 39.5.3 Cider Fermentation 654 39.5.4 Dairy Fermentation 654 39.5.5 Meat Fermentation 655 39.6 Examples of Immobilized Cell Technology in Microbial Production of High-Value Food Ingredients 655 39.6.1 Production of Vitamins 656 39.6.2 Production of Carotenoids 657 39.6.3 Production of Organic Acids 657 39.6.4 Production of Amino Acids 659 39.7 Examples of Encapsulated Cells/Bioactives in Production of Functional Food Products 659 39.7.1 Yogurt 659 39.7.2 Cheese 660 39.7.3 Ice Cream 660 39.7.4 Other Products 660 39.7.5 Commercial Products 661 39.8 Trends in Encapsulation 661 39.8.1 Co-Encapsulating Different Core Materials 661 39.8.2 Case Studies 664 39.9 Future Perspectives 665 Acknowledgements 665 References 666 40 Thermal Processing of Food 681 S. K. Pankaj 40.1 Introduction 681 40.1.1 Canning Operations 681 40.1.2 Thermobacteriology Terms 682 40.2 Cooking Criteria 684 40.3 Retorts 684 40.4 Control Systems 685 40.4.1 Temperature Measurement 685 40.4.2 Pressure Measurement 686 40.5 Process Evaluation 687 40.5.1 Determination of Target Microbe in the Product 687 40.5.2 Determining the Uniformity of Thermal Cycle in the Retorts 687 40.5.3 Determination of Heat Transfer in the Product 687 40.5.4 Theoretical Process 688 40.5.5 Validation of Theoretical Process 688 40.6 On-Line Retort Control 689 40.7 Novel Technologies 689 40.7.1 Radio-Frequency Heating 689 40.7.2 Microwave Heating 690 40.7.3 Infrared Heating 690 40.7.4 Ohmic Heating 691 40.8 Future Trends 691 References 692 Index 693

Product Details

  • publication date: 11/12/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118864555
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 752
  • ID: 9781118864555
  • weight: 1486
  • ISBN10: 1118864557

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