Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing

Advances in Industrial Mixing: A Companion to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing

By: North American Mixing Forum (editor), Edward L. Paul (editor), Suzanne M. Kresta (editor), Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng (editor), Arthur William Etchells (editor), David S. Dickey (editor)Hardback

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Description

Advances in Industrial Mixing is a companion volume and update to the Handbook of Industrial Mixing. The second volume fills in gaps for a number of industries that were not covered in the first edition. Significant changes in five of the fundamental areas are covered in entirely updated or new chapters. The original text is provided as a searchable pdf file on the accompanying USB. * This book explains industrial mixers and mixing problems clearly and concisely. * Gives practical insights by the top professionals in the field, combining industrial design standards with fundamental insight. * Details applications in 14 key industries. Six of these are new since the first edition. * Provides the professional with information he/she did not receive in school. * Five completely rewritten chapters on mixing fundamentals where significant advances have happened since the first edition and seven concise update chapters which summarize critical technical information.

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About Author

Suzanne M. Kresta is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Alberta. Arthur W. Etchells III is a retired DuPont Fellow with over forty years consulting in industrial mixing. David S. Dickey is a consultant specializing in mixing processes and equipment with MixTech, Inc. He has more than forty years experience with mixing processes and equipment. Victor Atiemo-Obeng is retired from The Dow Chemical Company where he worked as a scientist in the Engineering Science and Market Development department. The North American Mixing Forum provides an opportunity for dialogue about mixing problems in a wide range of industrial applications.

Contents

Contributors List xxxix Editors Introduction xliii Contents of the DVD, Including Instructional Videos lvii A Technical Definition of Mixing 1 Joelle Aubin and Suzanne M. Kresta Range of Industrial Mixing Applications 2 Three Dimensions of Segregation: A Technical Definition of Mixing 3 Identifying Mixing Problems: Defining the Critical Scales and Process Objectives 5 Notation 9 References 9 1a Residence Time Distributions 11 E. Bruce Nauman 1a-1 Introduction 12 1b Mean Age Theory for Quantitative Mixing Analysis 15 Minye Liu 1b-1 Introduction 15 1b-2 Age and Time in a Flow System 16 1b-3 Governing Equations of Mean Age and Higher Moments 17 1b-4 Computation of Mean Age 20 1b-4.1 Validations of Numerical Solutions 20 1b-4.2 Spatial Distribution of Mean Age in Mixing Devices 21 1b-5 Relations of Mean Age and Residence Time Distribution 25 1b-6 Variances and the Degree of Mixing 27 1b-6.1 Variance of Residence Time Distribution 27 1b-6.2 Variances of Age 28 1b-6.3 Degree of Mixing 28 1b-6.4 Spatial Nonuniformity in CFSTRs 30 1b-7 Mean Age and Concentration in a CFSTR 31 1b-7.1 Time History of Tracer Concentration 31 1b-7.2 Mixing Time in CFSTRs 33 1b-8 Probability Distribution Function of Mean Age 34 1b-8.1 Definition 34 1b-8.2 Scaling and Blend Time Estimation 35 1b-9 Future Development of Mean Age Theory 39 Nomenclature 39 Greek Letters 40 References 41 2a Turbulence in Mixing Applications 43 Suzanne M. Kresta and Robert S. Brodkey 2a-1 Introduction 44 2b Update to Turbulence in Mixing Applications 47 M'arcio B. Machado and Suzanne M. Kresta 2b-1 Introduction 47 2b-2 The Velocity Field and Turbulence 48 2b-2.1 Circulation and Macromixing 51 2b-2.2 Fully Turbulent Limits and the Scaling of Turbulence 53 2b-3 Spectrum of Turbulent Length Scales: Injection of Scalar (Either Reagent or Additive) and the Macro-, Meso-, and Microscales of Mixing 56 2b-3.1 Mesoscale Mixing 59 2b-3.2 New Experimental Results 61 2b-3.3 Summary 65 2b-4 Turbulence and Mixing of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 65 2b-5 Specifying Mixing Requirements for a Process 66 2b-5.1 Mixing Test Cells 69 2b-6 Conclusions 78 Notation 78 Roman Characters 78 Greek Characters 79 References 80 3a Laminar Mixing: A Dynamical Systems Approach 85 Edit S. Szalai, Mario M. Alvarez, and Fernando J. Muzzio 3a-1 Introduction 86 3b Microstructure, Rheology, and Processing of Complex Fluids 87 Patrick T. Spicer and James F. Gilchrist 3b-1 Introduction 87 3b-2 Literature Analysis Mixing of Complex Fluids 90 3b-3 Common Complex Fluid Rheology Classes and Their Effects 92 3b-3.1 Shear-Thinning Fluids 93 3b-3.2 Yield Stress Fluids 95 3b-3.3 Shear-Thickening Fluids 101 3b-3.4 Time-Dependent Fluids 103 3b-4 Conclusions 110 Nomenclature 110 Greek Symbols 111 References 111 Part A: Measuring Tools and Techniques for Mixing and Flow Visualization Studies 115 David A. R. Brown, Pip N. Jones, and John C. Middleton 4-1 Introduction 117 4-2.3 Scale of Operation 154 5a Computational Fluid Mixing 119 Elizabeth Marden Marshall and Andr'e Bakker 5a-1 Introduction 120 5b CFD Modeling of Stirred Tank Reactors 123 Minye Liu 5b-1 Numerical Issues 123 5b-1.1 Mesh Types 123 5b-1.2 Effect of Mesh Size on Mean Flow and Turbulent Diffusion 124 5b-1.3 Discretization Schemes 125 5b-1.4 Time Integration 126 5b-1.5 Convergence 127 5b-1.6 Treatment of Impellers 129 5b-1.7 Numerical Diffusion 130 5b-2 Turbulence Models 131 5b-2.1 The RANS Models 132 5b-2.2 The LES Method 133 5b-2.3 The DES Method 135 5b-2.4 The DNS Method 135 5b-2.5 Laminar and Transitional Flows 136 5b-3 Quantitative Predictions 137 5b-3.1 Power Number 137 5b-3.2 Flow Number Calculation 137 5b-3.3 Blend Time Calculation 139 5b-4 Modeling Other Physics 142 5b-4.1 Solid Liquid Flows 142 5b-4.2 Gas Liquid and Liquid Liquid Flows 143 5b-4.3 Flows with Other Physics and Chemistry 143 Nomenclature 144 Greek Letters 144 References 145 6a Mechanically Stirred Vessels 149 Ramesh R. Hemrajani and Gary B. Tatterson 6a-1 Introduction 150 6b Flow Patterns and Mixing 153 Suzanne M. Kresta and David S. Dickey 6b-1 Introduction 153 6b-2 Circulation Patterns 154 6b-2.1 Base Case: Down-Pumping Pitched-Blade Turbine (PBTD, D = T/3 and C = T/3) 157 6b-2.2 Baffles 157 6b-2.3 Changing the Impeller Type 158 6b-2.4 Impeller Diameter 160 6b-2.5 Off-Bottom Clearance 162 6b-2.6 Bottom Shape 166 6b-2.7 Liquid Level 168 6b-2.8 Baffle Options 170 6b-2.9 Viscosity 173 6b-2.10 Off-Set and Angled Shafts 175 6b-2.11 Continuous Flow 178 6b-3 Coupling the Velocity Field with Applications 178 6b-3.1 Solids Suspension 179 6b-3.2 Gas Dispersion 181 6b-3.3 Air Entrainment, Liquid Drawdown, and Drawdown of Floating Solids 182 6b-3.4 Reactor Design 184 6b-3.5 Summary 185 Nomenclature 185 Greek Symbols 185 References 186 6c Vessel Heads: Depths, Volumes, and Areas 189 David S. Dickey, Daniel R. Crookston, and Reid B. Crookston 6c-1 Head Depth 190 6c-2 Head Volume 193 6c-3 Head Area 194 6c-4 Dimensionless Coefficients for Torispherical Heads 195 6c-5 Calculations for Conical Bottoms 197 6c-6 Other Types of Bottoms 199 Nomenclature 199 Dimensional Variables and Parameters 199 Dimensionless Variables and Parameters 199 Dimensionless Greek Symbols 200 References 200 7a Mixing in Pipelines 201 Arthur W. Etchells III and Chris F. Meyer 7a-1 Introduction 202 7b Update to Mixing in Pipelines 205 Thomas A. Simpson, Michael K. Dawson, and Arthur W. Etchells III 7b-1 Introduction 205 7b-2 Use of CFD with Static Mixers 206 7b-3 Recent Developments in Single-Phase Blending 207 7b-3.1 Laminar Blending Updates 207 7b-3.2 Transitional Blending Updates 209 7b-3.3 Turbulent Blending Updates 210 7b-3.4 Reactive Mixing with Static Mixers 218 7b-3.5 Low-Pressure-Drop Turbulent Blending 219 7b-4 Recent Developments in Multiphase Dispersions 222 7b-4.1 Liquid Liquid and Gas Liquid Dispersions in Viscous Bulk 222 7b-4.2 Liquid Liquid Dispersions in Turbulent and Transitional Flow 223 7b-4.3 New Methods for Calculation of Pressure Drop and Drop Size 225 7b-4.4 Emulsification 225 7b-4.5 Vortex Mixer Emulsification 226 7b-4.6 Dispersion with Screens 227 7b-4.7 Supercritical Mass Transfer 228 7b-4.8 Gas-Phase Continuous Systems 228 7b-5 Mixing with Static Mixers When Solids are Present 229 7b-5.1 Disposable Static Mixers 231 Notation 232 Roman Characters 232 Greek Characters 233 Subscripts 233 References 235 7c Introduction to Micromixers 239 Joelle Aubin and Abraham D. Stroock 7c-1 Introduction 239 7c-2 Mixing and Transport Phenomena 240 7c-3 Micromixer Geometries and Fluid Contacting Mechanisms 241 7c-4 Characterization of Flow and Mixing 244 7c-5 Multiphase Mixing 245 7c-5.1 Liquid Liquid Mixing 246 7c-5.2 Gas Liquid Mixing 247 7c-6 Commercial Equipment and Industrial Examples 247 7c-7 Evaluation of the Current and Future Applicability of Microreactors in Industry 250 Notation 251 Suggested Reading 251 References 251 8 Rotor Stator Mixing Devices 255 Victor Atiemo-Obeng and Richard V. Calabrese 8-1 Introduction 256 8-1.1 Characteristics of Rotor Stator Mixers 256 8-1.2 Applications of Rotor Stator Mixers 256 8-1.3 Summary of Current Knowledge 257 9a Blending of Miscible Liquids 259 Richard K. Grenville and Alvin W. Nienow 9a-1 Introduction 260 9b Laminar Mixing Processes in Stirred Vessels 261 Philippe A. Tanguy, Louis Fradette, Gabriel Ascanio, and Ryuichi Yatomi 9b-1 Introduction 261 9b-2 Laminar Mixing Background 263 9b-3 Rheologically Complex Fluids 266 9b-4 Heat Effects 268 9b-5 Laminar Mixing Equipment 269 9b-6 Key Design Parameters 274 9b-6.1 Determination of the Power Number by Dimensional Analysis 275 9b-7 Power Number and Power Constant 276 9b-7.1 Newtonian Power Analysis 276 9b-7.2 Non-Newtonian Power Analysis 278 9b-8 Experimental Techniques to Determine Blend Time 282 9b-9 Mixing Efficiency 285 9b-10 Characterization of the Mixing Flow Field 288 9b-10.1 Experimental Characterization 288 9b-10.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Characterization 299 9b-11 Hydrodynamic Characterization of Laminar Blending 301 9b-11.1 Identifying the Operating Regime for Laminar Blending 302 9b-11.2 Open Turbines and Close-Clearance Impellers 303 9b-11.3 Coaxial Systems 312 9b-11.4 Mixers with Multiple Off-Centered Shafts 314 9b-11.5 Planetary Mixers 315 9b-11.6 When to Use Baffles 315 9b-11.7 Design Example 316 9b-12 Application of Chaos in Mixing 317 9b-12.1 Impeller Design 317 9b-12.2 Operating Modes 319 9b-12.3 Impeller Position 325 9b-12.4 Impeller Speed 327 9b-13 Selecting an Appropriate Geometry for Generic Applications 328 9b-13.1 Blending 328 9b-13.2 Liquid Liquid Dispersion and Emulsification 329 9b-13.3 Solid Liquid Dispersion 330 9b-13.4 Gas Liquid Dispersion 331 9b-13.5 Aeration Technologies 333 9b-13.6 Fluid Level Changes 334 9b-13.7 Caverns 335 9b-14 Heat and Mass Transfer in the Laminar Mixing 336 9b-15 Industrial Mixing Process Requirements 338 9b-16 Scale-up Rules in the Laminar Regime 340 9b-16.1 Scale-up Based on Constant Speed 340 9b-16.2 Scale-up Based on Constant Heat Balance 341 9b-16.3 Scale-up Based on Constant Mass Balance 341 9b-17 Mixer Troubleshooting and Engineering Calculations 342 9b-17.1 Adhesion 342 9b-17.2 Change of Re upon Change of Scale 342 9b-17.3 Shear Heating Issue 343 9b-17.4 Significant Viscosity Change 344 9b-17.5 Miscible Liquid Liquid Mixing with Excessive Different Viscosity 344 9b-17.6 Example of Industrial Calculation 346 9b-18 Concluding Remarks 347 Acknowledgments 348 References 348 10 Solid Liquid Mixing 357 David A. R. Brown, Arthur W. Etchells III, with sections by Richard K. Grenville, Kevin J. Myers, N. Gul O.. zcan-Tas,kin incorporating sections by Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng, Piero H. Armenante, and W. Roy Penney 10-1 Introduction and Scope 358 10-1.1 Finding Your Way through This Chapter 358 10-1.2 Key Solid Liquid Mixing Process Results 359 10-1.3 Solid Liquid Unit Operations 359 10-1.4 Process Considerations for Solid Liquid Mixing Operations 362 10-1.5 Effect of Solids on Processing 363 10-2 Solid and Liquid Physical Characteristics 364 10-2.1 Particle Size, Distribution, and Shape 364 10-2.2 Solids Concentration 366 10-2.3 Liquid and Solid Density 368 10-2.4 Liquid Viscosity 368 10-2.5 Settling Rates, Drag Coefficients, Correlations, and Modeling 368 10-2.6 Wettability 369 10-2.7 Stickiness 370 10-3 Agitation of Sinking or Settling Solids 371 10-3.1 Mechanisms of Suspension 371 10-3.2 Relevant Dimensionless Numbers 372 10-3.3 Degrees of Suspension 373 10-3.4 The Just-Suspended Speed, Njs (R. K. Grenville and D. A. R. Brown) 375 10-3.5 Solids Distribution 385 10-3.6 Effects of Material Properties on Suspension and Distribution 390 10-3.7 Effect of Mixer Geometry 395 10-3.8 Solid Suspension and Distribution in the Presence of Gas 411 10-3.9 Continuous Flow and Semibatch Operation 412 10-3.10 Summary of Design Recommendations and Scale-up Advice 414 10-4 Incorporation and Dispersion of Floating Solids (N. G. O.. zcan-Tas,kin) 416 10-4.1 Design Considerations 416 10-4.2 Mechanisms of Drawdown 417 10-4.3 Effect of Particle Concentration 419 10-4.4 Effect of Impeller Type, Pumping Mode, and Diameter 419 10-4.5 Effect of Impeller Submergence and Liquid Height 421 10-4.6 Effect of Number of Baffles 421 10-4.7 Scale-up 421 10-4.8 Drawdown of Fine Particles 423 10-4.9 Other Devices Used for Particle Incorporation 423 10-5 Attrition and Particle Damage 425 10-5.1 Summary 425 10-5.2 Particle Size Reduction in Stirred Tanks and Similar Equipment 425 10-5.3 Nature of Particulates 426 10-5.4 Mode of Breakage 426 10-5.5 Location of Breakage in Vessel and Concentration Effects 426 10-5.6 Estimating Strengths General Concepts 428 10-5.7 General Observations 429 10-5.8 Testing Analysis 429 10-5.9 Damage in Biological Systems 429 10-5.10 Preventing Attrition 430 10-6 Solids Suspension and Distribution Using Liquid Jets 430 10-7 Mass Transfer 431 10-7.1 Mass Transfer Regimes in Mechanically Agitated Solid Liquid Systems 432 10-7.2 Effect of Impeller Speed on Solid Liquid Mass Transfer 435 10-7.3 Correlations for the Solid Liquid Mass Transfer, kSL 436 10-7.4 Calculation of Solid Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient 437 10-8 Lab and Pilot-Scale Testing 440 Nomenclature 441 Dimensional Variables and Parameters 441 Dimensionless Parameters 442 Greek Symbols 443 References 443 11 Gas Liquid Mixing in Turbulent Systems 451 John C. Middleton and John M. Smith 11-1 Introduction 452 11-1.1 New Approaches and New Developments 453 11-1.2 Scope of the Chapter 453 11-1.3 Gas-Liquid Mixing Process Objectives and Mechanisms 454 12 Immiscible Liquid Liquid Systems 457 Douglas E. Leng and Richard V. Calabrese 12-1 Introduction 459 12-1.1 Definition of Liquid Liquid Systems 459 12-1.2 Practical Relevance 459 12-1.3 Fundamentals 460 12-1.4 Process Complexities in Scale-up 461 12-1.5 Classification by Flow Regime and Liquid Concentration 461 12-1.6 Scope and Approach 461 13a Mixing and Chemical Reactions 465 Gary K. Patterson, Edward L. Paul, Suzanne M. Kresta, and Arthur W. Etchells III 13a-1 Introduction 466 13a-1.1 How Mixing Can Cause Problems 468 13a-1.2 Reaction Schemes of Interest 469 13a-1.3 Relating Mixing and Reaction Time Scales: The Mixing Damkoehler Number 472 13b Scale-up Using the Bourne Protocol: Reactive Crystallization and Mixing Example 479 Aaron Sarafinas and Cheryl I. Teich 13b-1 Example: Redesigning an Uncontrolled Precipitation to a Reactive Crystallization 479 Goal 479 Issue 479 References 489 14a Heat Transfer 491 W. Roy Penney and Victor A. Atiemo-Obeng 14a-1 Introduction 492 14b Heat Transfer In Stirred Tanks Update 493 Jose Roberto Nunhez 14b-1 Introduction 493 14b-1.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 493 14b-2 Consideration of Heat Transfer Surfaces used in Mixing Systems 496 14b-2.1 Correlations for Conventional and Spiral-Baffle Annular Jackets 502 14b-2.2 Correlations for Half-Pipe and Dimple Jackets 504 14b-3 Heating and Cooling of Liquids 506 14b-3.1 Heating: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with an Isothermal Medium 507 14b-3.2 Cooling: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with an Isothermal Medium 508 14b-3.3 Heating: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with Nonisothermal Medium 508 14b-3.4 Cooling: Inner Coils or Jacketed Vessel with Nonisothermal Medium 509 14b-3.5 External Heat Exchanger, Isothermal Heating Medium 510 14b-3.6 External Heat Exchanger, Isothermal Cooling Medium 511 14b-4 Summary of Proposed Equations Used in Heat Transfer for Stirred Tanks 512 14b-4.1 Correcting for the Viscosity 512 14b-4.2 Use of Compact Heat Exchangers 517 14b-4.3 Cooling, a Real Problem 517 14b-5 Methodology for Design of Heating Mixing System 518 14b-6 Example 518 14b-6.1 Resolution 519 Acknowledgments 529 Nomenclature 529 Greek Symbols 531 References 531 15 Solids Mixing Part A: Fundamentals of Solids Mixing 533 Fernando J. Muzzio, Albert Alexander, Chris Goodridge, Elizabeth Shen, and Troy Shinbrot Part B: Mixing of Particulate Solids in the Process Industries 533 Konanur Manjunath, Shrikant Dhodapkar, and Karl Jacob 16 Mixing of Highly Viscous Fluids, Polymers, and Pastes 539 the late David B. Todd 16-1 Introduction 539 17 Mixing in the Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceutical Industries 541 Edward L. Paul (retired), Michael Midler, and Yongkui Sun 17-1 Introduction 542 18 Mixing in the Fermentation and Cell Culture Industries 543 Ashraf Amanullah and Barry C. Buckland, and Alvin W. Nienow 18-1 Introduction 544 19 Fluid Mixing Technology in the Petroleum Industry 547 Ramesh R. Hemrajani 19-1 Introduction 548 20 Mixing in the Pulp and Paper Industry 551 the late Chad P.J. Bennington 20-1 Introduction 552 21a Mechanical Design of Mixing Equipment 555 David S. Dickey and Julian B. Fasano 21-1 Introduction 556 21b Magnetic Drives for Mixers 559 David S. Dickey 21b-1 Introduction 559 21b-2 Laboratory Magnetic Stirrers 559 21b-3 Top-Entering Magnetic Mixer Drives 561 21b-4 Bottom-Entering Magnetic Mixer Drives 563 22 Role of the Mixing Equipment Supplier 567 Ron Weetman 22-1 Introduction 568 23 Commissioning Mixing Equipment 569 David S. Dickey, Eric Janz, Todd Hutchinson, Thomas Dziekonski, Richard O. Kehn, and Kayla Preston and Jay Dinnison 23-1 Introduction 569 23-2 Commissioning Concepts 570 23-3 Instructions for Commissioning 572 23-3.1 Introduction 572 23-3.2 Warranty Terms 573 23-3.3 Limitation of Liabilities 573 23-4 Safety Instructions 573 23-5 Receiving the Equipment 575 23-5.1 Receipt of the Mixer Drive 575 23-5.2 Receipt of the Impeller 575 23-5.3 Rust Prevention 576 23-5.4 Shipping Covers 576 23-5.5 Field Application of Corrosion Protection 576 23-5.6 Short-Term Storage 577 23-5.7 Long-Term Storage 577 23-6 Kinds of Storage 578 23-6.1 Indoor Storage: Dry, Temperature-Controlled Area 578 23-6.2 Indoor Storage: No Temperature or Humidity Control 579 23-6.3 Outdoor Storage: Not Recommended 580 23-6.4 Preparing Stored Mixers for Service 581 23-7 Installation 582 23-7.1 Preparation 582 23-7.2 Lifting Instructions 582 23-7.3 Shaft Installation 582 23-7.4 Mixer Mounting 586 23-7.5 Mixer Drive Installation 588 23-7.6 Flexible Coupling Installation 589 23-8 Lubrication 590 23-8.1 Filling the Mixer Drive 591 23-8.2 Low-Temperature Operation 591 23-8.3 Kinds of Lubrication 591 23-8.4 Oil Changes Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Procedure and Schedule 592 23-9 Wiring 594 23-9.1 Electric Motors Single Phase 594 23-9.2 Electric Motors Three Phase 594 23-9.3 Electric DC Variable Speed 594 23-9.4 Electric AC Variable Speed 595 23-9.5 Other Types of Motors (e.g., Hydraulic Drives) 595 23-10 Initial Operation 595 23-10.1 Preliminary Checks 595 23-10.2 Startup Procedure 596 23-10.3 Operational Checks 596 23-11 Troubleshooting 597 23-12 Maintenance 597 23-12.1 Preventive Maintenance Schedule 597 23-13 Commissioning Shaft Seals 597 23-13.1 Stuffing Box Seals 601 23-13.2 Mechanical Seals 604 23-13.3 Other Seals 608 23-14 Mechanical Checkout, Startup, and Troubleshooting of Agitator Equipment 609 23-14.1 Introduction 609 23-14.2 Mechanical Review 609 23-14.3 Startup and Commissioning 620 23-14.4 Troubleshooting Mixing Applications 627 23-15 Summary 639 Nomenclature 639 Greek Symbols 640 References 640 24 Mixing Safety 641 Gord Winkel and David S. Dickey 24-1 Introduction 641 24-2 The Practice of Risk Management 642 24-3 Summary Comments on Mixing Safety 661 References 663 25 Mixing Issues in Crystallization and Precipitation Operations 665 Alvin W. Nienow and Edward L. Paul 25-1 Introduction 665 25-2 Basic Crystallization Concepts 667 25-2.1 Solubility Curve and Metastable Zone Width 667 25-2.2 Methods of Achieving Supersaturation 669 25-2.3 Nucleation Phenomena 670 25-2.4 Crystal Growth 672 25-2.5 Conclusions 672 25-3 Impact of Mixing on Primary Heterogeneous Nucleation 673 25-3.1 General Considerations and Batch/Semibatch Processes 673 25-3.2 Implications for Scale-up; Continuous Crystallization 673 25-3.3 Conclusions 678 25-4 Impact of Mixing on Secondary Nucleation 678 25-4.1 General Considerations 678 25-4.2 Crystal Impacts on the Impeller and Other Surfaces 679 25-4.3 Crystal Crystal Impacts 682 25-5 Impact of Mixing on Crystal Growth and Dissolution Rates 684 25-5.1 Growth 684 25-5.2 Dissolution 687 25-6 Selecting Operating Conditions to Optimize Crystal Suspension and Withdrawal 687 25-6.1 Introduction 687 25-6.2 Prediction of NJS 688 25-6.3 Scale-up of Crystal Suspension 691 25-6.4 Crystal Distribution and Withdrawal 691 25-7 Damkoehler Number for Nucleation and Subsurface Feeding of Reactants 695 25-7.1 The Concept 695 25-7.2 Issues in Subsurface Feeding 698 25-8 Stirred Vessel Crystallizers 700 25-8.1 Batch Crystallizer 700 25-8.2 Continuous Crystallizer 702 25-9 Other Types of Equipment 704 25-9.1 Fluidized Beds 704 25-9.2 Impinging Jet Crystallizer 704 25-10 Precipitation 706 25-10.1 Precipitation in Stirred Vessels 707 25-10.2 Use of Impinging Jets and Other Rapid Mixing Devices 711 25-11 Agglomeration and Oiling Out 712 25-12 Conclusions 714 Nomenclature 716 Greek Symbols 717 Subscripts 718 References 718 Appendices 722 Problem Example 1: Slow Approach to Equilibrium 722 Problem Example 2 723 Problem Example 3 725 26 Mixing in theWater and Wastewater Industry 729 Michael K. Dawson 26-1 Introduction 729 26-1.1 Treatment of Water, Wastewater, and Sludge 729 26-1.2 Mixing Operations in Water, Wastewater, and Sludge Processes 733 26-2 Mixing in Drinking Water Treatment 735 26-2.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria, and Constraints 735 26-2.2 Equipment Types 749 26-2.3 Coagulant Mixing Calculation Example 756 26-3 Mixing in Wastewater Treatment 758 26-3.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria, and Constraints 758 26-4 Mixing in Sludge Treatment 765 26-4.1 Process Applications, Mixing Objectives, Design Criteria and Constraints 766 26-4.2 Equipment Types 769 26-4.3 Modeling Study: Anaerobic Digester Mixing 772 26-5 Conclusions 775 Nomenclature 775 Greek Symbols 776 References 777 27 Mixing in the Food Industry 783 P. J. Cullen, Wesley Twombly, Robin Kay Connelly, and David S. Dickey 27-1 Introduction 783 27-2 Building or Reducing Texture Through Mixing 784 27-2.1 Dough Development 785 27-2.2 Texture Formation by Extrusion Mixing 794 27-3 Role of Mixing in Food Treatment 796 27-3.1 Heat Transfer 797 27-4 Food Homogeneity 802 27-5 Advances in the Science of Food Mixing 803 27-6 Other Food Mixers 803 27-6.1 Double-Motion Mixers 805 27-6.2 High-Shear Mixing Equipment 809 27-6.3 Special Devices That Function as Mixers 815 27-6.4 Powder Mixing Equipment 817 27-6.5 Other Common Mixers Used for Food Applications 817 27-7 Typical Food Groups 818 27-7.1 Breads 818 27-7.2 Breakfast Foods 819 27-7.3 Chocolate 819 27-7.4 Condiments 819 27-7.5 Dairy Products 819 27-7.6 Fermented Foods 820 27-7.7 Food Ingredients 820 27-7.8 Meat Foods 821 27-7.9 Pet Foods 821 27-7.10 Sauces 821 27-7.11 Snack Foods 822 27-7.12 Soups 822 27-7.13 Vegetable Foods 822 Nomenclature 823 Greek Symbols 823 References 823 28 Mixing and Processes Validation in the Pharmaceutical Industry 827 Otute Akiti and Piero M. Armenante 28-1 Introduction 827 28-2 Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 828 28-2.1 Introduction to Concept of Validation 828 28-2.2 Historical Milestones for Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 828 28-2.3 Process Validation and Pharmaceutical Development Cycle 830 28-2.4 Current Pharmaceutical Process Validation 831 28-2.5 Other Components of Validation 835 28-3 Pharmaceutical Processes and Role of Mixing in Pharmaceutical Production 836 28-3.1 Overview of Pharmaceutical Process Development and Manufacturing 836 28-3.2 Mixing in Pharmaceutical Processes 843 28-4 Examples of Process Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry 852 28-5 Example of Process Validation for API Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 API 852 28-5.1 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 1 Process Design 853 28-5.2 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 2 Process Qualification 858 28-5.3 Process Validation for EX123 API Manufacturing: Stage 3 Continued Process Verification 864 28-6 Example of Process Validation for Drug Product Manufacturing: Manufacturing of EX123 Drug Product 864 28-6.1 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 1 Process Design 864 28-6.2 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 2 Process Qualification 872 28-6.3 Process Validation for EX123 Drug Product Manufacturing: Stage 3 Continued Process Verification 884 Acknowledgment 885 References 885 Index 891

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/12/2015
  • ISBN13: 9780470523827
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1040
  • ID: 9780470523827
  • weight: 1636
  • ISBN10: 0470523824

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