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Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world's consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades.
The final part of the book describes advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing, including biobased composites, surface protection and coatings, structural performance testing and the design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials offers a comprehensive review of the recent advances and challenges encountered in wind turbine blade materials and design, and will provide an invaluable reference for researchers and innovators in the field of wind energy production, including materials scientists and engineers, wind turbine blade manufacturers and maintenance technicians, scientists, researchers and academics.
Prof. Povl Brondsted leads a research program on composites and material mechanics at the Materials Research Department in the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark. Dr Rogier Nijssen is a research scientist at the Knowledge Centre Wind Turbine Materials and Constructions, The Netherlands. Their research has been both in research contracts and in public projects. Brondsted and Nijssen have worked together in material research consortia such as the European Optimat and Upwind projects.
Contributor contact details Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy Introduction Part I: Wind turbine blade design: challenges and developments Chapter 1: Introduction to wind turbine blade design Abstract: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Design principles and failure mechanisms 1.3 Challenges and future trends Chapter 2: Loads on wind turbine blades Abstract: 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Types of load 2.3 Generation of loads 2.4 Fatigue and extreme loads 2.5 Design verification testing 2.6 Challenges and future trends 2.7 Sources of further information and advice Chapter 3: Aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotors Abstract: 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The blade element momentum (BEM) method 3.3 Important parameters in aerodynamic rotor design 3.4 Particular design parameters 3.5 An example of the rotor design process 3.6 Future trends 3.7 Sources of further information and advice 3.8 Acknowledgements Chapter 4: Aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils Abstract: 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Computational methods 4.3 Desired characteristics 4.4 The effect of leading edge contamination (roughness) and Reynolds number 4.5 Airfoil testing 4.6 Airfoil characteristics at high angles of attack 4.7 Correction for centrifugal and Coriolis forces 4.8 Establishing data for blade design 4.9 Future trends Chapter 5: Aeroelastic design of wind turbine blades Abstract: 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Wind turbine blade aeroelasticity 5.3 Blade design Conclusion 5.4 Complete turbine design 5.5 Challenges and future trends 5.6 Sources of further information and advice Part II: Fatigue behaviour of composite wind turbine blades Chapter 6: Fatigue as a design driver for composite wind turbine blades Abstract: 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Materials in blades 6.3 Blade structure and components 6.4 Fundamentals of wind turbine blade fatigue 6.5 Research into wind turbine blade fatigue and its modelling 6.6 Future trends 6.7 Conclusion Chapter 7: Effects of resin and reinforcement variations on fatigue resistance of wind turbine blades Abstract: 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Effects of loading conditions for glass and carbon laminates 7.3 Tensile fatigue trends with laminate construction and fiber content for glass fiber laminates 7.4 Effects of resin and fabric structure on tensile fatigue resistance 7.5 Delamination and material transitions 7.6 Comparison of fatigue trends for blade materials 7.7 Conclusion 7.8 Future trends 7.9 Sources of further information and advice 7.10 Acknowledgments Chapter 8: Fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials Abstract: 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Macroscopic failure theories 8.3 Strength and stiffness degradation fatigue theories 8.4 Fracture mechanics fatigue theories 8.5 Case study: Phenomenological fatigue life prediction 8.6 Future trends Chapter 9: Micromechanical modelling of wind turbine blade materials Abstract: 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Analytical models of the mechanical behaviour, strength and damage of fibre-reinforced composites: an overview 9.3 Unit cell modelling of fibre-reinforced composites 9.4 Three-dimensional modelling of composite degradation under tensile loading 9.5 Carbon fibre-reinforced composites: statistical and compressive loading effects 9.6 Hierarchical composites with nanoengineered matrix 9.7 Conclusions and future trends 9.8 Sources of further information and advice 9.9 Acknowledgements Chapter 10: Probabilistic design of wind turbine blades Abstract: 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Structural analysis models 10.3 Failure definition 10.4 Random variables 10.5 Probabilistic methods and models 10.6 Application examples and discussion of techniques 10.7 Challenges and future trends 10.8 Sources of further information and advice Part III: Advances in wind turbine blade materials, development and testing Chapter 11: Biobased composites: materials, properties and potential applications as wind turbine blade materials Abstract: 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Biobased fibres and matrix materials 11.3 Biobased composites 11.4 Case study: Comparison between cellulose and glass fibre composites 11.5 Special considerations in the development and application of biobased composites Chapter 12: Surface protection and coatings for wind turbine rotor blades Abstract: 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Fundamentals of surface protection for wind turbine blades 12.3 Protection from blade icing, lightning and air traffic 12.4 Performance testing of protection layers: an introduction 12.5 Accelerated testing of the surface coatings of wind turbine blades in practice 12.6 Conclusions, challenges and future trends Chapter 13: Design, manufacture and testing of small wind turbine blades Abstract: 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Requirements for small wind turbine blades 13.3 Materials and manufacture 13.4 Blade testing 13.5 Installation and operation 13.6 Challenges and future trends 13.7 Acknowledgements Chapter 14: Wind turbine blade structural performance testing Abstract: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Test program 14.3 Types of tests 14.4 Test loads 14.5 Test details 14.6 Conclusion Index
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