This monograph provides an in-depth investigation of the structural integration and the licensing of adverbs in relation to clause structure, with special emphasis on the structural implementation of the relation between the position and interpretation of adverbs. The book substantiates the hypothesis that the licensing of adverbs within and across the three layers of the clause is contingent on specifier-head agreement and that variation in the linear order of adverbs and other elements of the clause follows from the interplay of a small number of factors. The central claims made are: functional projections hosting adverbs are not confined to the inflectional and complementizer layer of the clause, but also play a central role in the shaping of the lexical layer; postverbal adverbs are realized within a semantically empty verbal projection and licensed under specifier head agreement by proxy; and adverbs that occur within the complementizer layer of the clause do so by either move or merge.
1. 1. Introduction and Overview; 2. 1.1 Adverbs as an Empirical Domain of Investigation - The Problems; 3. 1.2 Central Issues in Syntax and Semantics of Adverbs; 4. 2. Proposals Regarding the Structural Integration and Licensing of Adverbs; 5. 2.1 Adverb Licensing in the Theory of Government and Binding and the Theory of Principles and Parameters; 6. 2.2 Adverb Licensing in the Minimalist Program and Antisymmetry of Syntax; 7. 2.3 Semantic Scope; 8. 2.4 Conclusion; 9. 3. Adverbs within the Lexical Layer; 10. 3.1 VP Shells, Overt Object Shift and Split VP; 11. 3.2 The Distribution and Licensing of Adverbs within the Lexical Layer; 12. 4. Adverbs within the Inflectional Layer, Mostly; 13. 4.1 The Projections of Non-Lexical Verbs; 14. 4.2 The Projection of Sentential Negation; 15. 4.3 The Distribution and Licensing of Adverbs in the Inflectional Layer; 16. 5. Adverbs within the Complementizer Layer, Mostly; 17. 5.1 Raising to the Left Periphery; 18. 5.2 The Distribution and Licensing of Adverbs within the Complementizer Layer; 19. 5.3 Conclusion; 20. 6. General Conclusion; 21. References; 22. Index