Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation presents a comprehensive and practical approach to argumentation and critical thinking for the beginning student learning to construct and present arguments on questions of fact, value, and policy.
Advocacy and Opposition offers a theoretical insight into the nature of argument in our society, a discussion of arguing as a form of communication, and a focus on how arguments are created using the Toulmin model of argument. By blending traditional and contemporary views of the nature of argument, (including multicultural perspectives on the purpose and process of argument, ethics, and values), Advocacy and Opposition makes students more aware of the development of theory and practice.
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1. What is argumentation? The nature of argumentation The nature of the audience The historical development of argumentation Ethical standards for argumentation 2. Where do I begin in argumentation? Fields of argumentation Presumption Burden of proof The prima facie case 3. What am I going to argue about? The nature of propositions The classification of propositions Phrasing the proposition Defining key terms 4. How do I analyze propositions? Locating the immediate cause Investigating history Defining key terms and creating the primary inference Determining the issues 5. How is a unit of argument created? The Toulmin model of argument 6. How do I prove my argument? The discovery of evidence Types and tests of evidence Recording evidence 7. How do I reason with my audience? Argument from cause Argument from sign Argument from generalization Argument from parallel case Argument from analogy Argument from authority Argument from dilemma 8. What should I avoid? Fallacies of reasoning Fallacies of appeal Fallacies of language 9. How are factual propositions argued? Advocating propositions of fact Opposing propositions of fact 10. How are value propositions argued? The nature of values Advocating propositions of value Opposing propositions of value 11. How are policy propositions argued? Advocating propositions of policy Opposing propositions of policy Appendix A: What are the rules of the game? Debate formats Speaker responsibilities Flow sheeting Glossary Index