Aerodynamics for Engineers, Internation... | WHSmith Books
Aerodynamics for Engineers, International Edition (6th edition)

Aerodynamics for Engineers, International Edition (6th edition)

By: John J. Bertin (author), Russell M. Cummings (author)Paperback

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For junior/senior and graduate-level courses in Aerodynamics, Mechanical Engineering, and Aerospace Engineering Revised to reflect the technological advances and modern application in Aerodynamics, the Sixth Edition of Aerodynamics for Engineers merges fundamental fluid mechanics, experimental techniques, and computational fluid dynamics techniques to build a solid foundation for students in aerodynamic applications from low-speed through hypersonic flight. It presents a background discussion of each topic followed by a presentation of the theory, and then derives fundamental equations, applies them to simple computational techniques, and compares them to experimental data. Teaching and Learning ExperienceTo provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will:Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. Engage Students: Examples and industrially relevant case studies demonstrate the importance of the subject, offer a real-world perspective, and keep students interested.


PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION xvCHAPTER 1 WHY STUDY AERODYNAMICS? 11.1 Aerodynamics and the Energy-Maneuverability Technique 21.1.1 Specific Excess Power 61.1.2 Using Specific Excess Power to Change the Energy Height 71.1.3 John R. Boyd Meet Harry Hillaker 81.1.4 The Importance of Aerodynamics to Aircraft Performance 81.2 Solving for the Aerothermodynamic Parameters 81.2.1 Concept of a Fluid 81.2.2 Fluid as a Continuum 81.2.3 Fluid Properties 101.2.4 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid Medium 171.2.5 The Standard Atmosphere 221.3 Description of an Airplane 261.4 Summary 27Problems 28References 32 CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS 332.1 Introduction to Fluid Dynamics 342.2 Conservation of Mass 362.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 402.4 Applications to Constant-Property Flows 462.4.1 Poiseuille Flow 462.4.2 Couette Flow 502.4.3 Integral Equation Application 522.5 Reynolds Number and Mach Number as Similarity Parameters 552.6 Concept of the Boundary Layer 632.7 Conservation of Energy 652.8 First Law of Thermodynamics 662.9 Derivation of the Energy Equation 682.9.1 Integral Form of the Energy Equation 712.9.2 Energy of the System 712.9.3 Flow Work 722.9.4 Viscous Work 732.9.5 Shaft Work 732.9.6 Application of the Integral Form of the Energy Equation 742.10 Summary 76Problems 76References 87 CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF AN INCOMPRESSIBLE, INVISCID FLOW FIELD 883.1 Inviscid Flows 893.2 Bernoulli's Equation 903.3 Use of Bernoulli's Equation to Determine Airspeed 933.4 The Pressure Coefficient 963.5 Circulation 993.6 Irrotational Flow 1023.7 Kelvin's Theorem 1033.7.1 Implication of Kelvin's Theorem 1043.8 Incompressible, Irrotational Flow and the Velocity Potential 1043.8.1 Irrotational Condition 1053.8.2 Boundary Conditions 1053.9 Stream Function in a Two-Dimensional, Incompressible Flow 1073.10 Relation between Streamlines and Equipotential Lines 1093.11 Superposition of Flows 1123.12 Elementary Flows 1133.12.1 Uniform Flow 1133.12.2 Source or Sink 1143.12.3 Doublet 1163.12.4 Potential Vortex 1173.12.5 The Vortex Theorems of Helmholtz 1203.12.6 Summary of Stream Functions and of Potential Functions 1233.13 Adding Elementary Flows to Describe Flow Around a Cylinder 1263.13.1 Velocity Field 1263.13.2 Pressure Distribution on the Cylinder 1283.13.3 Lift and Drag 1303.14 Lift and Drag Coefficients as Dimensionless Flow-Field Parameters 1343.15 Flow Around a Cylinder with Circulation 1393.15.1 Velocity Field 1393.15.2 Lift and Drag 1403.15.3 Applications of Potential Flow to Aerodynamics 1423.16 Source Density Distribution on the Body Surface 1443.17 Incompressible, Axisymmetric Flow 1493.17.1 Flow Around a Sphere 1503.18 Summary 152Problems 152References 165 CHAPTER 4 VISCOUS BOUNDARY LAYERS 1664.1 Equations Governing the Boundary Layer for a Steady, Two-Dimensional, Incompressible Flow 1674.2 Boundary Conditions 1704.3 Incompressible, Laminar Boundary Layer 1714.3.1 Numerical Solutions for the Falkner-Skan Problem 1744.4 Boundary-Layer Transition 1894.5 Incompressible, Turbulent Boundary Layer 1934.5.1 Derivation of the Momentum Equation for Turbulent Boundary Layer 1954.5.2 Approaches to Turbulence Modeling 1974.5.3 Turbulent Boundary Layer for a Flat Plate 1994.6 Eddy Viscosity and Mixing Length Concepts 2024.7 Integral Equations for a Flat-Plate Boundary Layer 2044.7.1 Application of the Integral Equations of Motion to a Turbulent, Flat-Plate Boundary Layer 2084.7.2 Integral Solutions for a Turbulent Boundary Layer with a Pressure Gradient 2134.8 Thermal Boundary Layer for Constant-Property Flows 2154.8.1 Reynolds Analogy 2164.8.2 Thermal Boundary Layer for Pr 1 2184.9 Summary 221Problems 221References 225 CHAPTER 5 CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS FOR AIRFOIL AND WING AERODYNAMICS 2265.1 Characterization of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 2275.1.1 General Comments 2275.1.2 Parameters That Govern Aerodynamic Forces 2305.2 Airfoil Geometry Parameters 2315.2.1 Airfoil-Section Nomenclature 2325.2.2 Leading-Edge Radius and Chord Line 2335.2.3 Mean Camber Line 2345.2.4 Maximum Thickness and Thickness Distribution 2345.2.5 Trailing-Edge Angle 2355.3 Wing-Geometry Parameters 2365.4 Aerodynamic Force and Moment Coefficients 2445.4.1 Lift Coefficient 2445.4.2 Moment Coefficient 2505.4.3 Drag Coefficient 2525.4.4 Boundary-Layer Transition 2565.4.5 Effect of Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Forces 2595.4.6 Method for Predicting Aircraft Parasite Drag 2635.5 Wings of Finite Span 2735.5.1 Lift 2745.5.2 Drag 2795.5.3 Lift/Drag Ratio 283Problems 288References 292 CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS AROUND AIRFOILS OF INFINITE SPAN 2946.1 General Comments 2956.2 Circulation and the Generation of Lift 2966.2.1 Starting Vortex 2966.3 General Thin-Airfoil Theory 2986.4 Thin, Flat-Plate Airfoil (Symmetric Airfoil) 3016.5 Thin, Cambered Airfoil 3066.5.1 Vorticity Distribution 3066.5.2 Aerodynamic Coefficients for a Cambered Airfoil 3086.6 Laminar-Flow Airfoils 3176.7 High-Lift Airfoil Sections 3216.8 Multielement Airfoil Sections for Generating High Lift 3276.9 High-Lift Military Airfoils 334Problems 337References 339 CHAPTER 7 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WINGS OF FINITE SPAN 3417.1 General Comments 3427.2 Vortex System 3457.3 Lifting-Line Theory for Unswept Wings 3467.3.1 Trailing Vortices and Downwash 3487.3.2 Case of Elliptic Spanwise Circulation Distribution 3517.3.3 Technique for General Spanwise Circulation Distribution 3577.3.4 Lift on the Wing 3627.3.5 Vortex-Induced Drag 3627.3.6 Some Final Comments on Lifting-Line Theory 3737.4 Panel Methods 3757.4.1 Boundary Conditions 3767.4.2 Solution Methods 3777.5 Vortex Lattice Method 3797.5.1 Velocity Induced by a General Horseshoe Vortex 3827.5.2 Application of the Boundary Conditions 3867.5.3 Relations for a Planar Wing 3877.6 Factors Affecting Drag Due-to-Lift at Subsonic Speeds 4017.7 Delta Wings 4047.8 Leading-Edge Extensions 4147.9 Asymmetric Loads on the Fuselage at High Angles of Attack 4187.9.1 Asymmetric Vortex Shedding 4197.9.2 Wakelike Flows 4227.10 Flow Fields for Aircraft at High Angles of Attack 4227.11 Unmanned Air Vehicle Wings 4247.12 Summary 426Problems 426References 428 CHAPTER 8 DYNAMICS OF A COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FIELD 4318.1 Thermodynamic Concepts 4328.1.1 Specific Heats 4328.1.2 Additional Important Relations 4358.1.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics and Reversibility 4358.1.4 Speed of Sound 4388.2 Adiabatic Flow in a Variable-Area Streamtube 4418.3 Isentropic Flow in a Variable-Area Streamtube 4458.4 Converging-diverging Nozzles 4518.5 Characteristic Equations and Prandtl-Meyer Flows 4548.6 Shock Waves 4628.7 Viscous Boundary Layer 4738.7.1 Effects of Compressibility 4768.8 Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions 4808.9 Shock/Shock Interactions 4828.10 The Role of Experiments for Generating Information Defining the Flow Field 4868.10.1 Ground-Based Tests 4868.10.2 Flight Tests 4908.11 Comments About The Scaling/Correction Process(es) for Relatively Clean Cruise Configurations 4948.12 Summary 495Problems 495References 502 CHAPTER 9 COMPRESSIBLE, SUBSONIC FLOWS AND TRANSONIC FLOWS 5059.1 Compressible, Subsonic Flow 5069.1.1 Linearized Theory for Compressible Subsonic Flow About a Thin Wing at Relatively Small Angles of Attack 5079.1.2 The Goethert Transformation 5099.1.3 Additional Compressibility Corrections 5129.1.4 The Motivation for Determining the Critical Mach Number 5139.1.5 Critical Mach Number 5139.1.6 Drag Divergence Mach Number 5169.2 Transonic Flow Past Unswept Airfoils 5179.3 Wave Drag Reduction by Design 5269.3.1 Airfoil Contour Wave Drag Approaches 5269.3.2 Supercritical Airfoil Sections 5269.4 Swept Wings at Transonic Speeds 5279.4.1 Wing-Body Interactions and the "Area Rule" 5299.4.2 Second-Order Area-Rule Considerations 5389.4.3 Forward Swept Wing 5409.5 Transonic Aircraft 5439.6 Summary 548Problems 548References 548 CHAPTER 10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL, SUPERSONIC FLOWS AROUND THIN AIRFOILS 55110.1 Linear Theory 55310.1.1 Lift 55510.1.2 Drag 55610.1.3 Pitch Moment 55810.2 Second-Order Theory (Busemann's Theory) 56110.3 Shock-Expansion Technique 56610.4 Summary 572Problems 572References 575 CHAPTER 11 SUPERSONIC FLOWS OVER WINGS AND AIRPLANE CONFIGURATIONS 57711.1 General Remarks About Lift and Drag 57911.2 General Remarks About Supersonic Wings 58111.3 Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions 58311.4 Consequences of Linearity 58411.5 Solution Methods 58511.6 Conical-Flow Method 58511.6.1 Rectangular Wings 58611.6.2 Swept Wings 59111.6.3 Delta and Arrow Wings 59511.7 Singularity-Distribution Method 59811.7.1 Find the Pressure Distribution Given the Configuration 60011.7.2 Numerical Method for Calculating the Pressure Distribution Given the Configuration 60811.7.3 Numerical Method for the Determination of Camber Distribution 62211.8 Design Considerations for Supersonic Aircraft 62511.9 Some Comments about the Design of the SST and of the HSCT 62711.9.1 The Supersonic Transport (SST), the Concorde 62711.9.2 The High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) 62911.9.3 Reducing the Sonic Boom 63011.9.4 Classifying High-Speed Aircraft Designs 63111.10 Slender Body Theory 63411.11 Base Drag 63611.12 Aerodynamic Interaction 63911.13 Aerodynamic Analysis for Complete Configurations in a Supersonic Free Stream 64211.14 Summary 643Problems 644References 646 CHAPTER 12 HYPERSONIC FLOWS 64912.1 The Five Distinguishing Characteristics 65212.1.1 Thin Shock Layers 65212.1.2 Entropy Layers 65312.1.3 Viscous-Inviscid Interactions 65312.1.4 High Temperature Effects 65412.1.5 Low-Density Flows 65512.2 Newtonian Flow Model 65712.3 Stagnation Region Flow-Field Properties 66012.4 Modified Newtonian Flow 66512.5 High L/D Hypersonic Configurations-Waveriders 68212.6 Aerodynamic Heating 69112.6.1 Similarity Solutions for Heat Transfer 69412.7 A Hypersonic Cruiser for the Twenty-First Century? 69712.8 Importance of Interrelating CFD, Ground-Test Data, and Flight-Test Data 70012.9 Boundary-Layer-Transition Methodology 70212.10 Summary 706Problems 706References 708 CHAPTER 13 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 71113.1 High-Lift Configurations 71213.1.1 Increasing the Area 71213.1.2 Increasing the Lift Coefficient 71313.1.3 Flap Systems 71613.1.4 Multi-element Airfoils 71913.1.5 Power-Augmented Lift 72313.2 Circulation Control Wing 72513.3 Design Considerations for Tactical Military Aircraft 72713.4 Drag Reduction 73113.4.1 Variable-Twist, Variable-Camber Wings 73113.4.2 Laminar-Flow Control 73413.4.3 Wingtip Devices 73713.4.4 Wing Planform 74013.5 Development of an Airframe Modification to Improve the Mission Effectiveness of an Existing Airplane 74213.5.1 The EA-6B 74213.5.2 The Evolution of the F-16 74513.5.3 External Carriage of Stores 75213.5.4 Additional Comments 75813.6 Considerations for Wing/Canard, Wing/Tail, and Tailless Configurations 75813.7 Comments on the F-15 Design 76313.8 The Design of the F-22 76413.9 The Design of the F-35 76713.10 Summary 770Problems 770References 772 CHAPTER 14 TOOLS FOR DEFINING THE AERODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT 77514.1 Computational Tools 77714.1.1 Semiempirical Methods 77714.1.2 Surface Panel Methods for Inviscid Flows 77814.1.3 Euler Codes for Inviscid Flow Fields 77914.1.4 Two-Layer Flow Models 77914.1.5 Computational Techniques That Treat the Entire Flow Field in a Unified Fashion 78014.1.6 Integrating the Diverse Computational Tools 78114.2 Establishing the Credibility of CFD Simulations 78314.3 Ground-Based Test Programs 78514.4 Flight-Test Programs 78814.5 Integration of Experimental and Computational Tools: The Aerodynamic Design Philosophy 78914.6 Summary 790References 790 APPENDIX A THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION WRITTEN IN CONSERVATION FORM 793APPENDIX B A COLLECTION OF OFTEN USED TABLES 799ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 806

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780273793274
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 832
  • ID: 9780273793274
  • weight: 1222
  • ISBN10: 0273793276
  • edition: 6th edition

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