Aerodynamics for Engineers (International ed of 6th revised ed)

Aerodynamics for Engineers (International ed of 6th revised ed)

By: John J. Bertin (author), Russell M. Cummings (author)Paperback

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Description

For junior/senior and graduate-level courses in Aerodynamics, Mechanical Engineering, and Aerospace Engineering Revised to reflect the technological advances and modern application in Aerodynamics, the Sixth Edition of Aerodynamics for Engineers merges fundamental fluid mechanics, experimental techniques, and computational fluid dynamics techniques to build a solid foundation for students in aerodynamic applications from low-speed through hypersonic flight. It presents a background discussion of each topic followed by a presentation of the theory, and then derives fundamental equations, applies them to simple computational techniques, and compares them to experimental data. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: *Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. *Engage Students: Examples and industrially relevant case studies demonstrate the importance of the subject, offer a real-world perspective, and keep students interested.

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Contents

PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION xv CHAPTER 1 WHY STUDY AERODYNAMICS? 1 1.1 Aerodynamics and the Energy-Maneuverability Technique 2 1.1.1 Specific Excess Power 6 1.1.2 Using Specific Excess Power to Change the Energy Height 7 1.1.3 John R. Boyd Meet Harry Hillaker 8 1.1.4 The Importance of Aerodynamics to Aircraft Performance 8 1.2 Solving for the Aerothermodynamic Parameters 8 1.2.1 Concept of a Fluid 8 1.2.2 Fluid as a Continuum 8 1.2.3 Fluid Properties 10 1.2.4 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid Medium 17 1.2.5 The Standard Atmosphere 22 1.3 Description of an Airplane 26 1.4 Summary 27 Problems 28 References 32 CHAPTER 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS 33 2.1 Introduction to Fluid Dynamics 34 2.2 Conservation of Mass 36 2.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 40 2.4 Applications to Constant-Property Flows 46 2.4.1 Poiseuille Flow 46 2.4.2 Couette Flow 50 2.4.3 Integral Equation Application 52 2.5 Reynolds Number and Mach Number as Similarity Parameters 55 2.6 Concept of the Boundary Layer 63 2.7 Conservation of Energy 65 2.8 First Law of Thermodynamics 66 2.9 Derivation of the Energy Equation 68 2.9.1 Integral Form of the Energy Equation 71 2.9.2 Energy of the System 71 2.9.3 Flow Work 72 2.9.4 Viscous Work 73 2.9.5 Shaft Work 73 2.9.6 Application of the Integral Form of the Energy Equation 74 2.10 Summary 76 Problems 76 References 87 CHAPTER 3 DYNAMICS OF AN INCOMPRESSIBLE, INVISCID FLOW FIELD 88 3.1 Inviscid Flows 89 3.2 Bernoulli's Equation 90 3.3 Use of Bernoulli's Equation to Determine Airspeed 93 3.4 The Pressure Coefficient 96 3.5 Circulation 99 3.6 Irrotational Flow 102 3.7 Kelvin's Theorem 103 3.7.1 Implication of Kelvin's Theorem 104 3.8 Incompressible, Irrotational Flow and the Velocity Potential 104 3.8.1 Irrotational Condition 105 3.8.2 Boundary Conditions 105 3.9 Stream Function in a Two-Dimensional, Incompressible Flow 107 3.10 Relation between Streamlines and Equipotential Lines 109 3.11 Superposition of Flows 112 3.12 Elementary Flows 113 3.12.1 Uniform Flow 113 3.12.2 Source or Sink 114 3.12.3 Doublet 116 3.12.4 Potential Vortex 117 3.12.5 The Vortex Theorems of Helmholtz 120 3.12.6 Summary of Stream Functions and of Potential Functions 123 3.13 Adding Elementary Flows to Describe Flow Around a Cylinder 126 3.13.1 Velocity Field 126 3.13.2 Pressure Distribution on the Cylinder 128 3.13.3 Lift and Drag 130 3.14 Lift and Drag Coefficients as Dimensionless Flow-Field Parameters 134 3.15 Flow Around a Cylinder with Circulation 139 3.15.1 Velocity Field 139 3.15.2 Lift and Drag 140 3.15.3 Applications of Potential Flow to Aerodynamics 142 3.16 Source Density Distribution on the Body Surface 144 3.17 Incompressible, Axisymmetric Flow 149 3.17.1 Flow Around a Sphere 150 3.18 Summary 152 Problems 152 References 165 CHAPTER 4 VISCOUS BOUNDARY LAYERS 166 4.1 Equations Governing the Boundary Layer for a Steady, Two-Dimensional, Incompressible Flow 167 4.2 Boundary Conditions 170 4.3 Incompressible, Laminar Boundary Layer 171 4.3.1 Numerical Solutions for the Falkner-Skan Problem 174 4.4 Boundary-Layer Transition 189 4.5 Incompressible, Turbulent Boundary Layer 193 4.5.1 Derivation of the Momentum Equation for Turbulent Boundary Layer 195 4.5.2 Approaches to Turbulence Modeling 197 4.5.3 Turbulent Boundary Layer for a Flat Plate 199 4.6 Eddy Viscosity and Mixing Length Concepts 202 4.7 Integral Equations for a Flat-Plate Boundary Layer 204 4.7.1 Application of the Integral Equations of Motion to a Turbulent, Flat-Plate Boundary Layer 208 4.7.2 Integral Solutions for a Turbulent Boundary Layer with a Pressure Gradient 213 4.8 Thermal Boundary Layer for Constant-Property Flows 215 4.8.1 Reynolds Analogy 216 4.8.2 Thermal Boundary Layer for Pr 1 218 4.9 Summary 221 Problems 221 References 225 CHAPTER 5 CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS FOR AIRFOIL AND WING AERODYNAMICS 226 5.1 Characterization of Aerodynamic Forces and Moments 227 5.1.1 General Comments 227 5.1.2 Parameters That Govern Aerodynamic Forces 230 5.2 Airfoil Geometry Parameters 231 5.2.1 Airfoil-Section Nomenclature 232 5.2.2 Leading-Edge Radius and Chord Line 233 5.2.3 Mean Camber Line 234 5.2.4 Maximum Thickness and Thickness Distribution 234 5.2.5 Trailing-Edge Angle 235 5.3 Wing-Geometry Parameters 236 5.4 Aerodynamic Force and Moment Coefficients 244 5.4.1 Lift Coefficient 244 5.4.2 Moment Coefficient 250 5.4.3 Drag Coefficient 252 5.4.4 Boundary-Layer Transition 256 5.4.5 Effect of Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Forces 259 5.4.6 Method for Predicting Aircraft Parasite Drag 263 5.5 Wings of Finite Span 273 5.5.1 Lift 274 5.5.2 Drag 279 5.5.3 Lift/Drag Ratio 283 Problems 288 References 292 CHAPTER 6 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS AROUND AIRFOILS OF INFINITE SPAN 294 6.1 General Comments 295 6.2 Circulation and the Generation of Lift 296 6.2.1 Starting Vortex 296 6.3 General Thin-Airfoil Theory 298 6.4 Thin, Flat-Plate Airfoil (Symmetric Airfoil) 301 6.5 Thin, Cambered Airfoil 306 6.5.1 Vorticity Distribution 306 6.5.2 Aerodynamic Coefficients for a Cambered Airfoil 308 6.6 Laminar-Flow Airfoils 317 6.7 High-Lift Airfoil Sections 321 6.8 Multielement Airfoil Sections for Generating High Lift 327 6.9 High-Lift Military Airfoils 334 Problems 337 References 339 CHAPTER 7 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW ABOUT WINGS OF FINITE SPAN 341 7.1 General Comments 342 7.2 Vortex System 345 7.3 Lifting-Line Theory for Unswept Wings 346 7.3.1 Trailing Vortices and Downwash 348 7.3.2 Case of Elliptic Spanwise Circulation Distribution 351 7.3.3 Technique for General Spanwise Circulation Distribution 357 7.3.4 Lift on the Wing 362 7.3.5 Vortex-Induced Drag 362 7.3.6 Some Final Comments on Lifting-Line Theory 373 7.4 Panel Methods 375 7.4.1 Boundary Conditions 376 7.4.2 Solution Methods 377 7.5 Vortex Lattice Method 379 7.5.1 Velocity Induced by a General Horseshoe Vortex 382 7.5.2 Application of the Boundary Conditions 386 7.5.3 Relations for a Planar Wing 387 7.6 Factors Affecting Drag Due-to-Lift at Subsonic Speeds 401 7.7 Delta Wings 404 7.8 Leading-Edge Extensions 414 7.9 Asymmetric Loads on the Fuselage at High Angles of Attack 418 7.9.1 Asymmetric Vortex Shedding 419 7.9.2 Wakelike Flows 422 7.10 Flow Fields for Aircraft at High Angles of Attack 422 7.11 Unmanned Air Vehicle Wings 424 7.12 Summary 426 Problems 426 References 428 CHAPTER 8 DYNAMICS OF A COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FIELD 431 8.1 Thermodynamic Concepts 432 8.1.1 Specific Heats 432 8.1.2 Additional Important Relations 435 8.1.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics and Reversibility 435 8.1.4 Speed of Sound 438 8.2 Adiabatic Flow in a Variable-Area Streamtube 441 8.3 Isentropic Flow in a Variable-Area Streamtube 445 8.4 Converging-diverging Nozzles 451 8.5 Characteristic Equations and Prandtl-Meyer Flows 454 8.6 Shock Waves 462 8.7 Viscous Boundary Layer 473 8.7.1 Effects of Compressibility 476 8.8 Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions 480 8.9 Shock/Shock Interactions 482 8.10 The Role of Experiments for Generating Information Defining the Flow Field 486 8.10.1 Ground-Based Tests 486 8.10.2 Flight Tests 490 8.11 Comments About The Scaling/Correction Process(es) for Relatively Clean Cruise Configurations 494 8.12 Summary 495 Problems 495 References 502 CHAPTER 9 COMPRESSIBLE, SUBSONIC FLOWS AND TRANSONIC FLOWS 505 9.1 Compressible, Subsonic Flow 506 9.1.1 Linearized Theory for Compressible Subsonic Flow About a Thin Wing at Relatively Small Angles of Attack 507 9.1.2 The Gothert Transformation 509 9.1.3 Additional Compressibility Corrections 512 9.1.4 The Motivation for Determining the Critical Mach Number 513 9.1.5 Critical Mach Number 513 9.1.6 Drag Divergence Mach Number 516 9.2 Transonic Flow Past Unswept Airfoils 517 9.3 Wave Drag Reduction by Design 526 9.3.1 Airfoil Contour Wave Drag Approaches 526 9.3.2 Supercritical Airfoil Sections 526 9.4 Swept Wings at Transonic Speeds 527 9.4.1 Wing-Body Interactions and the "Area Rule" 529 9.4.2 Second-Order Area-Rule Considerations 538 9.4.3 Forward Swept Wing 540 9.5 Transonic Aircraft 543 9.6 Summary 548 Problems 548 References 548 CHAPTER 10 TWO-DIMENSIONAL, SUPERSONIC FLOWS AROUND THIN AIRFOILS 551 10.1 Linear Theory 553 10.1.1 Lift 555 10.1.2 Drag 556 10.1.3 Pitch Moment 558 10.2 Second-Order Theory (Busemann's Theory) 561 10.3 Shock-Expansion Technique 566 10.4 Summary 572 Problems 572 References 575 CHAPTER 11 SUPERSONIC FLOWS OVER WINGS AND AIRPLANE CONFIGURATIONS 577 11.1 General Remarks About Lift and Drag 579 11.2 General Remarks About Supersonic Wings 581 11.3 Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions 583 11.4 Consequences of Linearity 584 11.5 Solution Methods 585 11.6 Conical-Flow Method 585 11.6.1 Rectangular Wings 586 11.6.2 Swept Wings 591 11.6.3 Delta and Arrow Wings 595 11.7 Singularity-Distribution Method 598 11.7.1 Find the Pressure Distribution Given the Configuration 600 11.7.2 Numerical Method for Calculating the Pressure Distribution Given the Configuration 608 11.7.3 Numerical Method for the Determination of Camber Distribution 622 11.8 Design Considerations for Supersonic Aircraft 625 11.9 Some Comments about the Design of the SST and of the HSCT 627 11.9.1 The Supersonic Transport (SST), the Concorde 627 11.9.2 The High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) 629 11.9.3 Reducing the Sonic Boom 630 11.9.4 Classifying High-Speed Aircraft Designs 631 11.10 Slender Body Theory 634 11.11 Base Drag 636 11.12 Aerodynamic Interaction 639 11.13 Aerodynamic Analysis for Complete Configurations in a Supersonic Free Stream 642 11.14 Summary 643 Problems 644 References 646 CHAPTER 12 HYPERSONIC FLOWS 649 12.1 The Five Distinguishing Characteristics 652 12.1.1 Thin Shock Layers 652 12.1.2 Entropy Layers 653 12.1.3 Viscous-Inviscid Interactions 653 12.1.4 High Temperature Effects 654 12.1.5 Low-Density Flows 655 12.2 Newtonian Flow Model 657 12.3 Stagnation Region Flow-Field Properties 660 12.4 Modified Newtonian Flow 665 12.5 High L/D Hypersonic Configurations-Waveriders 682 12.6 Aerodynamic Heating 691 12.6.1 Similarity Solutions for Heat Transfer 694 12.7 A Hypersonic Cruiser for the Twenty-First Century? 697 12.8 Importance of Interrelating CFD, Ground-Test Data, and Flight-Test Data 700 12.9 Boundary-Layer-Transition Methodology 702 12.10 Summary 706 Problems 706 References 708 CHAPTER 13 AERODYNAMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 711 13.1 High-Lift Configurations 712 13.1.1 Increasing the Area 712 13.1.2 Increasing the Lift Coefficient 713 13.1.3 Flap Systems 716 13.1.4 Multi-element Airfoils 719 13.1.5 Power-Augmented Lift 723 13.2 Circulation Control Wing 725 13.3 Design Considerations for Tactical Military Aircraft 727 13.4 Drag Reduction 731 13.4.1 Variable-Twist, Variable-Camber Wings 731 13.4.2 Laminar-Flow Control 734 13.4.3 Wingtip Devices 737 13.4.4 Wing Planform 740 13.5 Development of an Airframe Modification to Improve the Mission Effectiveness of an Existing Airplane 742 13.5.1 The EA-6B 742 13.5.2 The Evolution of the F-16 745 13.5.3 External Carriage of Stores 752 13.5.4 Additional Comments 758 13.6 Considerations for Wing/Canard, Wing/Tail, and Tailless Configurations 758 13.7 Comments on the F-15 Design 763 13.8 The Design of the F-22 764 13.9 The Design of the F-35 767 13.10 Summary 770 Problems 770 References 772 CHAPTER 14 TOOLS FOR DEFINING THE AERODYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT 775 14.1 Computational Tools 777 14.1.1 Semiempirical Methods 777 14.1.2 Surface Panel Methods for Inviscid Flows 778 14.1.3 Euler Codes for Inviscid Flow Fields 779 14.1.4 Two-Layer Flow Models 779 14.1.5 Computational Techniques That Treat the Entire Flow Field in a Unified Fashion 780 14.1.6 Integrating the Diverse Computational Tools 781 14.2 Establishing the Credibility of CFD Simulations 783 14.3 Ground-Based Test Programs 785 14.4 Flight-Test Programs 788 14.5 Integration of Experimental and Computational Tools: The Aerodynamic Design Philosophy 789 14.6 Summary 790 References 790 APPENDIX A THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION WRITTEN IN CONSERVATION FORM 793 APPENDIX B A COLLECTION OF OFTEN USED TABLES 799 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 806

Product Details

  • publication date: 16/05/2013
  • ISBN13: 9780273793274
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 832
  • ID: 9780273793274
  • weight: 1221
  • ISBN10: 0273793276
  • edition: International ed of 6th revised ed

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