Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications

Aerosol Science: Technology and Applications

By: Ian Colbeck (editor), Mihalis Lazaridis (editor)Hardback

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Description

This book reviews technological applications of aerosol science together with the current scientific status of aerosol modeling and measurements. The aim is to identify available current information on the effects of aerosols on human health. The book also gives significant attention to specific aerosol sources such as vehicle emissions and bioaerosols. There is a chapter on radioactive aerosols, to reflect the renewed interest in nuclear power, and a review on military and homeland security in conjunction with aerosols.

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About Author

Ian Colbeck, University of Essex, UK Mihalis Lazaridis, Technical University of Crete, Greece

Contents

List of Contributors xiii Preface xv 1. Introduction 1 Mihalis Lazaridis and Ian Colbeck 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Size and Shape 5 1.3 Size Distribution 6 1.4 Chemical Composition 10 1.5 Measurements and Sampling 11 References 12 2. Aerosol Dynamics 15 Mihalis Lazaridis and Yannis Drossinos 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 General Dynamic Equation 17 2.3 Nucleation: New Particle Formation 19 2.4 Growth by Condensation 26 2.5 Coagulation and Agglomeration 27 2.6 Deposition Mechanisms 32 2.7 Resuspension 38 References 41 3. Recommendations for Aerosol Sampling 45 Alfred Wiedensohler, Wolfram Birmili, Jean-Philippe Putaud, and John Ogren 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Guidelines for Standardized Aerosol Sampling 46 3.3 Concrete Sampling Configurations 53 3.4 Artifact-Free Sampling for Organic Carbon Analysis 57 Acknowledgments 59 References 59 4. Aerosol Instrumentation 61 Da-Ren Chen and David Y. H. Pui 4.1 Introduction 61 4.2 General Strategy 62 4.3 Aerosol Sampling Inlets and Transport 63 4.4 Integral Moment Measurement 64 4.5 Particle Surface Area Measurement 68 4.6 Size-Distribution Measurement 70 4.7 Chemical Composition Measurement 78 4.8 Conclusion 80 References 82 5. Filtration Mechanisms 89 Sarah Dunnett 5.1 Introduction 89 5.2 Deposition Mechanisms 91 5.3 Factors Affecting Efficiency 104 5.4 Filter Randomness 109 5.5 Applications 109 5.6 Conclusions 110 Nomenclature 110 References 113 6. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols 119 Sagnik Dey and Sachchida Nand Tripathi 6.1 Introduction 119 6.2 Surface-Based Remote Sensing 120 6.3 Satellite-Based Remote Sensing 126 6.4 Summary and Future Requirements 141 Acknowledgements 142 References 142 7. Atmospheric Particle Nucleation 153 Mikko Sipila, Katrianne Lehtipalo, and Markku Kulmala 7.1 General Relevance 153 7.2 Detection of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 156 7.3 Atmospheric Observations of New Particle Formation 163 7.4 Laboratory Experiments 166 7.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Challenges 169 References 170 8. Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Impacts 181 Maria Kanakidou 8.1 Introduction 181 8.2 Global Aerosol Distributions 181 8.3 Aerosol Climate Impacts 182 8.4 Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions 186 8.5 Extinction of Radiation by Aerosols (Direct Effect) 190 8.6 Aerosols and Clouds (Indirect Effect) 194 8.7 Radiative Forcing Estimates 200 8.8 The Way Forward 203 References 203 9. Air Pollution and Health and the Role of Aerosols 207 Pat Goodman and Otto Hanninen 9.1 Background 207 9.2 Size Fractions 208 9.3 Which Pollution Particle Sizes Are Important? 209 9.4 What Health Outcomes Are Associated with Exposure to Air Pollution? 209 9.5 Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols 209 9.6 Particle Deposition in the Lungs 210 9.7 Aerosol Interaction Mechanisms in the Human Body 211 9.8 Human Respiratory Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 212 9.9 Cardiovascular Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 215 9.10 Conclusions and Recommendations 215 References 216 10. Pharmaceutical Aerosols and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 221 Darragh Murnane, Victoria Hutter, and Marie Harang 10.1 Introduction 221 10.2 Pharmaceutical Aerosols in Disease Treatment 223 10.3 Aerosol Physicochemical Properties of Importance in Lung Deposition 226 10.4 The Fate of Inhaled Aerosol Particles in the Lung 228 10.5 Production of Inhalable Particles 233 10.6 Aerosol Generation and Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Therapy 237 10.7 Product Performance Testing 253 10.8 Conclusion and Outlook 255 References 255 11. Bioaerosols and Hospital Infections 271 Kaman Lai, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, and Jonathon Taylor 11.1 The Importance of Bioaerosols and Infections 271 11.2 Bioaerosol-Related Infections in Hospitals 272 11.3 Bioaerosol Properties and Deposition in Human Respiratory Systems 275 11.4 Chain of Infection and Infection Control in Hospitals 275 11.5 Application of Aerosol Science and Technology in Infection Control 277 11.6 Conclusion 285 References 285 12. Nanostructured Material Synthesis in the Gas Phase 291 Peter V. Pikhitsa and Mansoo Choi 12.1 Introduction 291 12.2 Aerosol-Based Synthesis 292 12.3 Flame Synthesis 292 12.4 Flame and Laser Synthesis 299 12.5 Laser-Induced Synthesis 302 12.6 Metal-Powder Combustion 309 12.7 Spark Discharge 313 12.8 Assembling Useful Nanostructures 314 12.9 Conclusions 322 References 323 13. The Safety of Emerging Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 327 L. Reijnders 13.1 Introduction 327 13.2 Human Health and Inhaled Persistent Engineered Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 330 13.3 Human Health Hazards and Risks Linked to the Ingestion of Persistent Inorganic Nanomaterials 333 13.4 Ecotoxicity of Persistent Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 335 13.5 Conclusion 336 References 336 14. Environmental Health in Built Environments 345 Zaheer Ahmad Nasir 14.1 Environmental Hazards and Built Environments 345 14.2 Particulate Contaminants 348 14.3 Gas Contaminants 351 References 362 15. Particle Emissions from Vehicles 369 Jonathan Symonds 15.1 Introduction 369 15.2 Engine Concepts and Technologies 370 15.3 Particle Formation 373 15.4 Impact of Vehicle Particle Emissions 376 15.5 Sampling and Measurement Techniques 378 15.6 Amelioration Techniques 385 Acknowledgements 388 References 388 16. Movement of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere and the Consequences for Climate and Microbial Evolution 393 Cindy E. Morris, Christel Leyronas, and Philippe C. Nicot 16.1 Introduction 393 16.2 Emission: Launch into the Atmosphere 395 16.3 Transport in the Earth s Boundary Layer 399 16.4 Long-Distance Transport: From the Boundary Layer into the Free Troposphere 404 16.5 Interaction of Microbial Aerosols with Atmospheric Processes 406 16.6 Implications of Aerial Transport for Microbial Evolutionary History 407 References 410 17. Disinfection of Airborne Organisms by Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Sunlight 417 Jana S. Kesavan and Jose-Luis Sagripanti 17.1 Introduction 417 17.2 UV Radiation 418 17.3 Sunlight 419 17.4 Selected Organisms 421 17.5 Effects of UV Light on Aerosolized Organisms 423 17.6 Disinfection of Rooms Using UV-C Radiation 429 17.7 Sunlight Exposure Studies 430 17.8 Testing Considerations 431 17.9 Discussion 435 References 435 18. Radioactive Aerosols: Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 441 Katsumi Hirose 18.1 Introduction 441 18.2 Origin of Radioactive Aerosols 442 18.3 Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 446 18.4 Tracer of Environmental Change 457 18.5 Conclusion 460 References 461 Index 469

Product Details

  • publication date: 31/01/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781119977926
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 490
  • ID: 9781119977926
  • weight: 984
  • ISBN10: 1119977924

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