Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is now an essential and effective tool used in the design of all types of turbomachine, and this topic constitutes the main theme of this book. With over 50 years of experience in the field of aerodynamics, Professor Naixing Chen has developed a wide range of numerical methods covering almost the entire spectrum of turbomachinery applications. Moreover, he has also made significant contributions to practical experiments and real-life designs. The book focuses on rigorous mathematical derivation of the equations governing flow and detailed descriptions of the numerical methods used to solve the equations. Numerous applications of the methods to different types of turbomachine are given and, in many cases, the numerical results are compared to experimental measurements. These comparisons illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the methods a useful guide for readers. Lessons for the design of improved blading are also indicated after many applications.
* Presents real-world perspective to the past, present and future concern in turbomachinery * Covers direct and inverse solutions with theoretical and practical aspects * Demonstrates huge application background in China * Supplementary instructional materials are available on the companion website Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery: Analysis and Design is ideal for senior undergraduates and graduates studying in the fields of mechanics, energy and power, and aerospace engineering; design engineers in the business of manufacturing compressors, steam and gas turbines; and research engineers and scientists working in the areas of fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, and heat transfer. Supplementary lecture materials for instructors are available at www.wiley.com/go/chenturbo
Naixing Chen is a Professor of Aerodynamics at Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, where he has been working for nearly 30 years since 1980 and had served as the former Director (1986 -1992) and Honorary Chairman of Scientific Committee (1992 - 1999). He worked as an Associate Professor and Deputy Division Head at the Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1978 to 1980. He was an Honorary Visiting Professor of the University of Auckland, New Zealand, from 1997 to 1999. Since 1980s, Chen has been member of organizing or advisory committee of a couple of international conferences in his research field. He is also a very active with the editorial boards of journals. Chen also holds considerable honors including State Award of Natural Science (2002, Chinese government). Chen has been very active in R & D in the area of aero-thermodynamics of turbomachinery for more than 50 years. He is one of the three leading authors of a very popular and influential textbook in China in the field of trubomachinery. He received a Diploma Engineering Degree and a Master Degree from The Moscow Baumann Technical University, both in turbomachinery.
Foreword xv Preface xvii Acknowledgments xix Nomenclature xxi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction to the Study of the Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery 1 1.2 Brief Description of the Development of the Numerical Study of the Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery 2 1.3 Summary 6 2 Governing Equations Expressed in Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates to Calculate 3D Viscous Fluid Flow in Turbomachinery 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Aerothermodynamics Governing Equations (Navier Stokes Equations) of Turbomachinery 10 2.3 Viscous and Heat Transfer Terms of Equations 11 2.4 Examples of Simplification of Viscous and Heat Transfer Terms 15 2.5 Tensor Form of Governing Equations 20 2.6 Integral Form of Governing Equations 21 2.7 A Collection of the Basic Relationships for Non-Orthogonal Coordinates 22 2.8 Summary 24 3 Introduction to Boundary Layer Theory 25 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 General Concepts of the Boundary Layer 25 3.3 Summary 35 4 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Differential Equations 37 4.1 Introduction 37 4.2 Boundary Layer Equations Expressed in Partial Differential Form 37 4.3 Numerical Solution of the Boundary Layer Differential Equations for a Cascade on the Stream Surface of Revolution 41 4.4 Calculation Results and Validations 45 4.5 Application to Analysis of the Performance of Turbomachinery Blade Cascades 49 4.6 Summary 57 5 Approximate Calculations Using Integral Boundary Layer Equations 59 5.1 Introduction 59 5.2 Integral Boundary Layer Equations 59 5.3 Generalized Method for Approximate Calculation of the Boundary Layer Momentum Thickness 64 5.4 Laminar Boundary Layer Momentum Integral Equation 66 5.5 Transitional Boundary Layer Momentum Integral Equation 68 5.6 Turbulent Boundary Layer Momentum Integral Equation 70 5.7 Calculation of a Compressible Boundary Layer 81 5.8 Summary 84 6 Application of Boundary Layer Techniques to Turbomachinery 87 6.1 Introduction 87 6.2 Flow Rate Coefficient and Loss Coefficient of Two-Dimensional Blade Cascades 87 6.3 Studies on the Velocity Distributions Along Blade Surfaces and Correlation Analysis of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Plane Blade Cascades 92 6.4 Summary 101 7 Stream Function Methods for Two- and Three-Dimensional Flow Computations in Turbomachinery 103 7.1 Introduction 103 7.2 Three-Dimensional Flow Solution Methods with Two Kinds of Stream Surfaces 104 7.3 Two- Stream Function Method for Three-Dimensional Flow Solution 106 7.4 Stream Function Methods for Two-Dimensional Viscous Fluid Flow Computations 118 7.5 Stream Function Method for Numerical Solution of Transonic Blade Cascade Flow on the Stream Surface of Revolution 127 7.6 Finite Analytic Numerical Solution Method (FASM) for Solving the Stream Function Equation of Blade Cascade Flow 131 7.7 Summary 140 8 Pressure Correction Method for Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Flow Computations in Turbomachinery 145 8.1 Introduction 145 8.2 Governing Equations of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Flow and the Pressure Correction Solution Method 146 8.3 Two-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Calculation Examples 157 8.4 Three-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Calculation Examples 169 8.5 Summary 198 9 Time-Marching Method for Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Flow Computations in Turbomachinery 199 9.1 Introduction 199 9.2 Governing Equations of Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow in Turbomachinery 201 9.3 Solution Method Based on Multi-Stage Runge-Kutta Time-Marching Scheme 205 9.4 Two-Dimensional Turbulent Flow Examples Calculated by the Multi-Stage Runge Kutta Time-Marching Method 216 9.5 Three-Dimensional Flow Examples Calculated by the Multi-Stage Runge Kutta Time-Marching Method 226 9.6 Summary 249 10 Numerical Study on the Aerodynamic Design of Circumferentialand Axial-Leaned and Bowed Turbine Blades 251 10.1 Introduction 251 10.2 Circumferential Blade-Bowing Study 252 10.3 Axial Blade-Bowing Study 266 10.4 Circumferential Blade-Bowing Study of Turbine Nozzle Blade Row with Low Span-Diameter Ratio 277 10.5 Summary 286 11 Numerical Study on Three-Dimensional Flow Aerodynamics and Secondary Vortex Motions in Turbomachinery 287 11.1 Introduction 287 11.2 Post-Processing Algorithms 288 11.3 Axial Turbine Secondary Vortices 289 11.4 Some Features of Straight-Leaned Blade Aerodynamics of a Turbine Nozzle with Low Span-Diameter Ratio 310 11.5 Numerical Study on the Three-Dimensional Flow Pattern and Vortex Motions in a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller 317 11.6 Summary 326 12 Two-Dimensional Aerodynamic Inverse Problem Solution Study in Turbomachinery 329 12.1 Introduction 329 12.2 Stream Function Method 331 12.3 A Hybrid Problem Solution Method Using the Stream Function Equation with Prescribed Target Velocity for the Blade Cascades of Revolution 336 12.4 Stream-Function-Coordinate Method (SFC) for the Blade Cascades on the Surface of Revolution 343 12.5 Stream-Function-Coordinate Method (SFC) with Target Circulation for the Blade Cascades on the Surface of Revolution 350 12.6 Two-Dimensional Inverse Method Using a Direct Solver with Residual Correction Technique 353 12.7 Summary 359 13 Three-Dimensional Aerodynamic Inverse Problem Solution Study in Turbomachinery 361 13.1 Introduction 361 13.2 Two-Stream-Function-Coordinate-Equation Inverse Method 362 13.3 Three-Dimensional Potential Function Hybrid Solution Method 364 13.4 Summary 372 14 Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Compressor and Turbine Blades 375 14.1 Introduction 375 14.2 Parameterization Method 377 14.3 Response Surface Method (RSM) for Blade Optimization 387 14.4 A Study on the Effect of Maximum Camber Location for a Transonic Fan Rotor Blading by GPAM 395 14.5 Optimization of a Low Aspect Ratio Turbine by GPAM and a Study of the Effects of Geometry on the Aerodynamics Performance 401 14.6 Blade Parameterization and Aerodynamic Design Optimization for a 3D Transonic Compressor Rotor 412 14.7 Summary 426 References 429 Index 441