In this study, Susan Welch and John Gruhl look at what impact policies developed in the wake of the landmark 1978 United States Supreme Court decision, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, have had on admissions. The Bakke decision legitimized the use of race as one of several factors that could be considered in admissions decisions, while forbidding the use of quotas. Using the results of a survey of admissions officers for law and medical schools and national enrollment data, the authors give us the first analysis of the real impact that the Bakke decision and affirmative action programs had on enrollments in medical and law schools. The authors then review affirmative action cases and analyze the current debate over affirmative action policy in light of Bakke's effects and in light of the changing nature of American demographics and politics. This book will appeal to scholars of race and gender in political science, sociology, and education as well as those interested in the study of affirmative action policies.