In 1983, the International Conference on Afghan Alternatives brought together a small but diverse group of scholars and officials to discuss at length and in depth the issues raised by the tragic conflict that continues between the overwhelming majority of the Afghan people and the Soviet invaders since December 1979. In Afghan Alternatives, the participants have expanded and updated their conference remarks to illuminate the issues, present policy options, and offer wide-ranging and provocative solutions to the Afghan conflict, which they all view as a dangerous and illegitimate use of force by the Soviet Union. Afghan Alternatives answers these questions: Why did the Soviet Union invade Afghanistan? What options do they have now? What are the long-term strategic dangers for the region should the Soviets be allowed to absorb Afghanistan? What is the effect of Islamic ideology on the conflict? What are the security and political aspects of Afghan refugees in Pakistan? What are the broader aspects of the relationship of the Afghan resistance to the international order? What international developments could help resolve the conflict? What is the role of the international community in providing aid to Afghanistan? How does this conflict affect Pakistani-Afghan relations? Contents and Contributors: Ralph Magnus, "Introduction"; Jiri Valenta, "Soviet Aims, Policies, and Alternatives in Afghanistan"; Eden Naby, "The Afghan Resistance Movement"; Marvin G. Weinbaum, "The International Community and Afghanistan"; Responses and Options"; Harmon E. Kirby, "U.S. Policy on Afghanistan"; Thomas E. Gouttierre, "The Role of Perceptions Concerning American Interests in the Afghan Resistance"; Noor A. Husain, "Alternative Future for Afghanistan"; and commentaries by Marian K. Leighton, Gregory M. Kortanek, Seyed Qassem Reshtia, Seyed Bahauddin Majrooth, Katarina Sabahuddin Kushkaki, Louis Dupree, and Gerald C. Steibel.