The chemistry, metabolism, human and animal toxicoses, economic losses, global implications and future considerations of Aflatoxins form the introductory part of the book followed by aspects of mycology, invasion of the fungus, biosynthesis and its influencing factors, in vitro production and purification, natural occurrence, their state in food and affinity to macromolecules in the second part. A review of the available methods of analysis of aflatoxins in food and feed commodities is given in the third part, wherein their comparative merits are discussed in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, rapidity and reliability in estimating aflatoxins.
The final part on control includes: prevention of fungal infection of crops by agricultural practices, drying of foods to safe moisture, development of resistant varieties, biocontrol and other biotechnological approaches; detoxification by physical, chemical and biological methods by following certain criteria to preserve the quality of the detoxified ones; and regulatory measures by various countries, in order to make foods/ feeds safe for consumption along with the aspects of chemoprevention and metabolic detoxification of aflatoxins.
S. C. Basappa.: Formerly Deputy Director Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
Preface / Acknowledgement / INTRODUCTION - Introduction to Aflatoxins: Historical Background of Mycotoxins / Chemistry of Aflatoxins / Structure and Function Relationship / Toxicology of Aflatoxins / Metabolism / Economic, Health and Trade Aspects of Aflatoxins / Global Implications of Aflatoxins / Future Considerations / References / AFLATOXINS FORMATION - Mycological Aspects: Introduction / Mycological Aspects of Toxigenic Moulds / Invasion and Formation of Aflatoxins: Introduction / During Pre-harvest / During Post-harvest / Factors Influencing the Formation / Summary and Conclusions / References / Biosynthesis: Introduction / Precursors and Intermediates / Substances Affecting Aflatoxin Biosynthesis / Genetic Aspects of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis / Molecular Analysis of the Pathway / Regulation of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis / Summary and Conclusions / References / Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Foods and Feeds: Introduction / Cereals / Oilseeds / Vegetable Oils / Pulses / Root and Stem Crops / Tree Nuts / Green Coffee and Cocoa Beans / Figs, Peaches, Dates and Raisins / Spices / Processed Foods / Herbal Medicinal Products / Feeds / Other Plant Products / Animal Products / Summary and Conclusions / References / State of Aflatoxin in Foods: Introduction / Physical Resistance of Food Materials / Partition and Distribution of Aflatoxin / Affinity of Aflatoxin to Macromolecules / References / Production of Aflatoxins: Introduction / Pre-harvest Aflatoxin Production / Solid Substrate Fermentation / Liquid Substrate Fermentation / Factors Influencing Aflatoxin Production / Screening Methods for Aflatoxin Detection / Preparation of Aflatoxins / Summary and Conclusions / References / ANALYSIS - Analysis of Aflatoxins: Introduction / Physicochemical Analysis / Bioassays / Immuno Assays / Other Methods of Assay / Confirmatory Tests / Screening Tests / Methods for Different Commodities / Certification / Safety and Disposal of Wastes / Summary and Conclusions / References/ CONTROL - Introduction and Prevention: Introduction to Control / Prevention / Detoxification: Introduction / Physical Methods / Chemical Methods / Biological Methods / Detoxification in Animal Systems / Detoxification in Plant Systems / Summary and Conclusions / References / Regulatory Measures: Introduction / Factors Influencing the Regulation for Mycotoxins/ International Legislation / Current Situation in Aflatoxin Regulation / Rationales for the Establishment of Limits and Regulations / HACCP System / Laboratory Safety Measures / Concluding Remarks / References / Index.