"African American Music" allows for a superb comprehension of African music without prior musical training, yet stimulates the thoughts of trained musicians as well. The material is divided into three parts: "Heritages of African American General Music"; "General Features and Related Topics"; and "Popular Styles". These divisions allow students to chronicle the music activities of those who greatly contributed to African American music within the context of African American social, political, economic, psychological, and cultural conditions. An added bonus for understanding African American culture through music, entails listening to selected songs representative of African American music. Over 100 songs are analysed for the reader and are conveniently organized in listening guides and on time lines. To ensure a full understanding of these songs, the specific teaching strategy places an emphasis on music listening using ten analytical parameters: melody, harmony, rhythm, texture, timbre, dynamics, instrumentation, form, vocal and instrumental sounds, and performance practices.
A CD is enclosed with the music sung and played by professional musicians containing audio examples that demonstrate not only usages within an African American performance context, but of general musical terminology. This way, students will discover the breadth applicability, and significance of terms as useful tools for learning the intricacies of any music.
About the Author ix Preface xi Acknowledgements xiii Introduction xv PART ONE: HERITAGES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC Learning Objectives 4 Chapter 1: Music Traditions in Africa 5 Chapter 2: Music and Dance Traditions during the African Diaspora and American Colonization 13 Colonial Period: West Indies and the New World 19 Occasions for Music and dance activities Among the Slaves 20 Festival and Holiday Activities Among the Slaves 26 Musical Activities in the Colonies 27 : ','.-. Singing Among the Colonists 30 High Art Musical Activities 33 PART TWO: GENERAL FEATURES AND RELATED TOPICS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC Learning Objectives 36 Chapter 3: Vocal Characteristics and Performance Practices 37 Melody 38 Harmony 41 Rhythm 43 Texture 44 Timbre 4 Dynamics and Articulations 46 Instrumentation: Voice Types and Vocal Group Sizes 47 Vocal Sounds 52 Performance Practices 53 A General Overview of Performance Practices of Male, Female, and Mixed Gender Groups By Decades From the 1950s to Present Day 56 Chapter 4: Instrumental Characteristics and Performance Practices 63 Instrument Types and Group Sizes 64 Melody 76 Harmony 78 Rhythm 80 Texture 82 Timbre 82 Dynamics 84 Form 85 Instrumentation 90 Instrumental Sounds 91 Performance Practices 92 Chapter 5: Lyrical Themes 99 Lyrical Themes By Subject 100 Lyrical Themes By Decade 105 Chapter 6: Music Setting 113 Sacred vs. Secular 114 Private vs. Public 116 Outdoor vs. Indoor 116 Business 117 Communal 118 Educational 118 Festival 119 Home 119 Hospitality 120 Religious 121 Work 121 Venue Type 122 Locale 123 Chapter 7: African American Dance 125 Dance in Africa 125 Black Dance during the African Diaspora 129 Black Dance: Post Civil War 130 Black Dance and Entertainment Turn of the 20th Century 131 Black Dance: The Harlem Renaissance 133 Black Dance and Youth Culture: Post WW II 136 PART THREE: POPULAR STYLES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC Learning Objectives 140 Introduction 141 Period I: Antebellum - Civil War Historical Overview 142 Chapter 8: African American Spirituals 143 Musicological Overview 144 Period II: Post Civil War - WWI Historical Overview 149 Heritages of Ragtime, Blues, and New Orleans Jazz: 150 Blackface Minstrelsy 150 Traveling Road Shows 154 Vaudeville 156 Chapter 9: Ragtime 161 Musicological Overview 166 Chapter 10: Blues 171 Country Blues 174 Musicological Overview 179 Chapter 11: New Orleans Jazz 185 Musicological Overview 189 Period III: PostWWI-WWII Historical Overview 193 Black Musical Theater 198 Chapter 12: Chicago and New York Jazz 205 Musicological Overview 210 Chapter 13: Classic Blues, and Country Blues Recordings 213 Chapter 14: Jazz: Big Band/Swing, Vocalists, and Other Bands 219 Big Bands 219 Vocal Jazz 231 Chapter 15: Gospel 237 Musicological Overview 243 Period IV: Post WWII - 1960s Historical Overview 252 Chapter 16: Bebop Jazz 257 Musicological Overview 260 Chapter 17: Rhythm & Blues 263 Musicological Overview 269 Rhythm & Blues: Present Day Trends 284 Chapter 18: Rock & Roll 287 Musicological Overview: Rock & Roll as Rhythm and Blues 295 Chapter 19: Cool Jazz and Free Form 299 Musicological Overview 303 Chapter 20: Soul 307 Women Performers 311 Men Performers 312 Musicological Overview 316 Chapter 21: Funk 321 Musicological Overview 323 Period V: 1970s - Present Day Historical Overview 328 Chapter 22: Disco 331 Musicological Overview 333 Women Performers 338 Men Performers 348 Chapter 23: Hip-Hop 359 Musicological Overview 365 Chapter 24: Jazz: 1970s - Present Day 373 Appendix A Listening Guidelines 380 Appendix B Instrumental & Vocal Abbreviations 389 Appendix C Performance Review Guidelines and Forms 390 Appendix D Grooving Body Movements through BassLines: A Tradition in African American Music Performance 400 Glossary 413 Selected Discography 418 Bibliography 420 Index 427