Four overarching themes underscore the essays in this book. These are the creation of African diaspora community and institutional structures; the structured and shared relationships among African immigrants, host, and homeland societies; the construction and negotiation of diaspora spaces, and domains (racial, ethnic, class consciousness, including identity politics; and finally African migrant economic integration, occupational, and labor force roles and statuses and impact on host societies. Each of the thematic themes has been chosen with one specific goal in mind: to depict and represent the critical components in the reconstitution of the African diaspora in international migration. We contextualized the themes in the African diaspora as a dynamic process involving what Paul Zeleza called the "diasporization" of African immigrant settlement communities in global transnational spaces. These themes also reflect the diversities inherent in the diaspora communities and call attention to the fluid and dynamic boundaries within which Africans create, diffuse, and engage host and home societies. In this context, the themes outlined in this book embody the diaspora tapestries woven by the immigrants to center African social and cultural forms in their host societies and communities. Collectively, the themes represent pathways for the elucidation of understanding African immigrant territorialization. Our purpose is to map out and identify the sources and sites for the contestations of the myriad of cultural manifestations of the new African diaspora and its depictions within the totality of the shared meanings and appropriations of the essences of African-ness or African blackness. The vulnerabilities, struggles, threats (internal or external to the immigrant community), and opportunities emanating from the diasporic relationships that these immigrants create are accentuated within the nexus of African global migrations. We view the African diaspora in terms of spatial and geographic constructions and propagations of African cultural identities and institutional forms in global domains whose boundaries are not static but rather dynamic, complex, and multidimensional. Simply stated, we approach the African diaspora from a perspective that incorporates the historical, as well as contemporary postmodern constructions of the Africa's dispersed communities and their associated transnational identity forms.
Dr. John A. Arthur is professor of sociology and criminology at the University of Minnesota, Duluth campus. He received his Ph.D. from Penn State University. His research interests include international migration, the African diaspora, race and ethnic relations, and minorities and the criminal justice system. Dr. Joseph Takougang is professor of African history in the department of Africana Studies at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio. His interests include colonial and post-colonial Africa, with a focus on Cameroon nationalism and post-colonial political developments in Cameroon. A secondary research area focuses on the African Diaspora in the United States. Dr Thomas Owusu is associate professor and chair of the Department of Geography and Urban Studies, William Paterson University of New Jersey. His research interests include the changing social geography of North American cities, immigrants and North America cities, dynamics of urban economic and demographic change, and comparative urban development and policy.
Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1: Searching for Promised Lands: Conceptualization of the African Diaspora in Migration John A. Arthur, Joseph Takougang and Thomas Owusu Chapter 2: The Role of Ghanaian Immigrant Associations in Canada Thomas Owusu Chapter 3: Identity Formation and Integration Among Bicultural Immigrant Blacks Msia Kibona Clark Chapter 4: Identity Politics of Ghanaian Immigrants in the Greater Cincinnati Area: Emerging Geography and Sociology of Immigrant Experiences Ian E. A. Yeboah Chapter 5: Reconciling Multiple Black Identities: The Case of 1.5 and 2.0 Nigerian Immigrants Janet T. Awokoya Chapter 6: Making In-Roads: African Immigrants and Business Opportunities in the United States Joseph Takougang and Bassirou Tidjani Chapter 7: Geography of Globalized Nursing Markets: Zimbabwean Migrant Nurse Trajectory and Work Experiences in the United Kingdom Ian E. A. Yeboah and Tatenda T. Mambo Chapter 8: Relationships Among Blacks in the Diaspora: African and Caribbean Immigrants and American-Born Blacks Nemata Blyden Chapter 9: Conceptualizing the Attitudes of African Americans Towards United States Immigration Policies John A. Arthur Chapter 10: African Immigrant Relationships With Homeland Countries Mojubaolu Olufunke Okome Chapter 11: African Women in the New Diaspora: Transnationalism and the (Re)Creation of Home Mary Johnson Osirim Chapter 12: Border Questions in African Diaspora Literature Hilary Chala Kowino Chapter 13: Modeling the Determinants of Voluntary Reverse Migration Flows and Repatriations of African Immigrants John A. Arthur Chapter 14: Africans in Global Migration: Still Searching for Promised Lands John A. Arthur and Thomas Owusu