Age Estimation in the Living: The Practitioners Guide

Age Estimation in the Living: The Practitioners Guide

By: Sue Black (editor), Jason Payne-James (editor), Anil Aggrawal (editor)Hardback

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Description

This book summarizes and explains the main approaches to age estimation in the living, defining when a parameter may be of use and raising awareness of its limitations. This text ensures that practitioners recognize when an assessment is beyond their area of expertise or beyond verification depending upon the clinical data available. Each key approach to age evaluation has been allotted a single chapter, written by an international leader in the particular field. The book also includes summary chapters that relay readily accessible data for use by the practitioner, and includes important "ageing milestones." This book is indispensable where problems of immigration and legal standing, juvenile vs. adult criminal status, and responsibilities of law enforcement to protect vulnerable persons are key issues on a daily basis. Medical practitioners, forensic practitioners such as pathology, odontology, anthropology and nursing, lawyers, and police would find this book incredibly useful.

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Contents

Foreword xiii Preface xv Glossary of Abbreviations xvii 1 An Introduction to the History of Age Estimation in the Living 1 Andreas Schmeling and Sue Black 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Dental Development 3 1.3 Skeletal Maturation 5 1.4 Secondary Sexual Development 8 1.5 Conclusion 10 References 12 2 Immigration, Asylum Seekers and Undocumented Identity 19 Heather Law, Lorraine Mensah, Sue Bailey and Julia Nelki 2.1 Asylum Seeker to Refugee 26 References 28 3 Clinical and Legal Requirements for Age Determination in the Living 30 Philip Beh and Jason Payne-James 3.1 Introduction 30 3.2 Contrasts between Age Assessment in the Living and the Deceased 31 3.3 Reasons for Age Estimation of Bodies and Human Remains 32 3.4 Reasons for Age Estimation of Living Individuals 32 3.5 Assessment Techniques 37 3.6 How Age May Be Specifically Documented 37 3.7 Birth Certificates 38 3.8 Identity Cards 38 3.9 Driving Licence 38 3.10 Passports 39 3.11 Age Verification Cards 40 3.12 Other Documents 40 3.13 Medical Issues 40 3.13.1 Duties to Examinee 40 3.14 Communication 41 3.15 Summary and Conclusions 41 References 42 4 Legal Implications of Age Determination: Consent and Other Issues 43 George Fernie and Jason Payne-James 4.1 Introduction 43 4.2 Principles of Practice 44 4.3 Duties of the Examining Practitioner 47 4.4 Criminal Issues in Age Determination in the Living 48 4.5 Practical Implications 51 4.6 Summary 53 References 54 5 The Challenges of Psychological Assessments of Maturity 55 Julia Nelki, Pete Grady, Sue Bailey and Heather Law 5.1 Introduction 55 5.1.1 Current Status in the UK 57 5.2 Need for Determination of Maturity 58 5.3 Psychological Maturity as a Concept 59 5.3.1 Child Development 60 5.3.2 Middle Childhood 61 5.3.3 Adolescence 62 5.3.4 Ethical Framework 63 5.4 Current Practice 65 5.5 Suggestions for a Framework for Good Practice 67 5.5.1 Setting 68 5.6 Summary and Conclusion 69 Appendix 5.A Proposed Framework, Based on Common Assessment Framework (Department of Schools Families and Children, 2007) 69 References 74 6 Principles of Physical Age Estimation 77 Sue Black and George Maat 6.1 Intra-uterine Growth and Development 79 6.2 Birth and Infancy 82 6.3 Childhood 83 6.4 Juvenile 85 6.5 Adolescence 85 6.6 Adult 86 6.7 Senescence 87 6.8 Summary 88 6.9 Growth Studies 89 References 91 7 Growth, Maturation and Age 95 Noel Cameron and Laura L. Jones 7.1 Growth, Maturation and Age 95 7.1.1 The Concept of Time 95 7.1.2 Maturity Indicators 98 7.1.3 Maturational Variation 99 7.1.4 Uneven Maturation 99 7.1.5 Sexual Dimorphism 100 7.1.6 Maturity and Size 100 7.2 Assessment of Maturation 101 7.2.1 Skeletal Maturity 101 7.2.2 Dental Maturity 101 7.2.3 Secondary Sexual Development 102 7.2.4 Independence of Methods 102 7.3 Secular Trends 102 7.4 Worldwide Variation in the Timing of Maturation 104 7.4.1 Secondary Sexual Development 104 7.4.2 Dental Development 109 7.4.3 Skeletal Development 109 7.5 Factors Associated with the Timing of Maturation 112 7.5.1 Genetic Variability 112 7.5.2 Demographic Factors 113 7.5.3 Biological Factors 114 7.5.4 Environmental Factors 116 7.6 Summary 120 References 120 8 Practical Imaging Techniques for Age Evaluation 130 Andreas Schmeling, Sven Schmidt, Ronald Schulz, Andreas Olze, Walter Reisinger and Volker Vieth 8.1 Introduction 130 8.2 Radiation Exposure in X-ray Examinations for the Purpose of Age Estimation 131 8.3 Radiological Examination of the Hand 133 8.4 Radiological Examination of the Teeth 138 8.5 Radiological Examination of the Clavicles 142 8.6 Summary and Conclusions 144 References 145 9 External Soft Tissue Indicators of Age from Birth to Adulthood 150 Anil Aggrawal, Puneet Setia, Avneesh Gupta, and Anthony Busuttil 9.1 Growth Patterns 151 9.2 Anthropometric Parameters in Children 151 9.2.1 Growth Charts 152 9.2.2 Developmental Milestones 159 9.2.2.1 Head Control 159 9.2.2.2 Rolling 159 9.2.2.3 Sitting 160 9.2.2.4 Gross Motor 160 9.2.2.5 Fine Motor 161 9.2.2.6 Social and cognitive 161 9.2.2.7 Speech and language 162 9.3 Pubertal Changes 162 9.3.1 Stages of Pubic Hair Development Derived from Tanner (1962) 163 9.3.1.1 Pubic Hair Development in Males 164 9.3.1.2 Pubic Hair Development in Females 164 9.3.2 Stages of Axillary Hair Development Derived from Tanner (1962) 164 9.3.3 Stages of Development of Male Genitalia Derived from Tanner (1962) 166 9.3.3.1 Testicular Volume 166 9.3.3.2 Age of First Erection and Ejaculation 167 9.3.4 Stages of breast development as derived from Tanner (1962) 168 9.3.5 Age of Menarche 168 9.4 Areas of New Research 170 9.5 Conclusion 170 References 171 10 Age Evaluation and Odontology in the Living 176 Jane Taylor and Matthew Blenkin 10.1 Introduction 176 10.2 Overview of the Development of the Dentition 177 10.3 Techniques of Dental Age Estimation 179 10.4 The Sub-adult Dentition 180 10.4.1 Sub-adult: Physical/Anatomical 180 10.4.1.1 Tooth Counts 180 10.4.2 Sub-adult: Radiographic 182 10.4.2.1 Atlas Style Techniques 182 10.4.2.2 Techniques Employing Measurement 184 10.4.3 Sub-adult: Destructive 187 10.4.3.1 Histological Techniques 187 10.4.3.2 Aspartic Acid Racemization 187 10.5 The Adult Dentition 187 10.5.1 Adult: Physical 188 10.5.1.1 Tooth Wear 188 10.5.2 Adult: Radiographic 188 10.5.2.1 Third Molars 189 10.5.2.2 Secondary Dentine Apposition 190 10.5.3 Adult: Destructive 191 10.5.3.1 The Gustafson Method 191 10.5.3.2 Root Transparency 191 10.5.3.3 Amino Acid Racemization and Histological Techniques 191 10.6 Summary 191 References 193 11 Age Evaluation from the Skeleton 202 S. Lucina Hackman, Alanah Buck and S. Black 11.1 Background 202 11.2 Fetal Age 204 11.3 Birth 208 11.4 Juvenile/Child 210 11.5 Age Estimation from the Skeleton in Living Adults 221 11.6 Medial Clavicle 222 11.7 Sternal Ribs and Costal Cartilages 223 11.8 Pelvis 224 11.9 Skull Sutural Closure 224 11.10 Laryngeal Cartilages 225 11.11 Other General Ageing Features 226 11.12 Summary 226 References 226 12 Age Evaluation after Growth Cessation 236 Anil Aggrawal, Puneet Setia, Avneesh Gupta and Anthony Busuttil 12.1 Background 236 12.2 Consent 237 12.3 Radiology 237 12.3.1 Pubic Bones 239 12.3.2 Long Bones 242 12.3.3 Skull Sutures 243 12.3.4 Costal Cartilages 246 12.3.4.1 Sternum 246 12.3.5 Vertebrae 247 12.3.6 Laryngeal Cartilages 250 12.4 Odontology 250 12.5 Soft Tissues of Face 251 12.6 Genetics in Age Estimation 252 12.7 Physiological and Biochemical Parameters for Age Estimation 253 12.8 Areas of Future Research 254 12.8.1 Small Long Bones 254 12.8.2 Scapula 254 12.8.3 Others 254 12.8.4 Histology 256 12.9 Conclusion 257 References 257 13 The Presentation of Results and Statistics for Legal Purposes 267 David Lucy 13.1 Introduction 267 13.2 Evidence and Intelligence 269 13.3 Statistical Methods in Age Estimation 270 13.4 Classical, or Frequentist, Approaches 271 13.5 Bayesian Approaches 271 13.6 The Relevance to Age Estimation 272 13.7 Likelihood Ratio Approaches 274 13.8 Errors of Interpretation 279 13.9 Concluding Comments 280 Appendix 13.A Age-Related Data from Gustafson (1950) 281 References 282 14 Key Practical Elements for Age Estimation in the Living 284 Sue Black, Jason Payne-James and Anil Aggrawal 14.1 The Four Pillars of Age Estimation 286 14.1.1 Pillar 1: Social and Psychological Evaluation 286 14.1.2 Pillar 2: External Estimation of Age 286 14.1.3 Pillar 3: Skeletal Estimation of Age 288 14.1.4 Pillar 4: Dental Estimation of Age 289 14.2 Conclusion 290 Index 291

Product Details

  • publication date: 24/09/2010
  • ISBN13: 9780470519677
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 318
  • ID: 9780470519677
  • weight: 710
  • ISBN10: 0470519673

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  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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