Agent-Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering (Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management)

Agent-Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering (Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management)

By: Levent Yilmaz (editor), Tuncer I. Oren (editor)Hardback

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Description

The only book to present the synergy between modeling and simulation, systems engineering, and agent technologies expands the notion of agent-based simulation to also deal with agent simulation and agent-supported simulation. Accessible to both practitioners and managers, it systematically addresses designing and building agent systems from a systems engineering perspective.

About Author

Levent Yilmaz is assistant professor of computer science and software engineering at the College of Engineering, Auburn University, USA. Before joining the faculty in 2003, Professor Yilmaz worked as a senior research engineer in the Simulation and Software Division of Trident Systems, Inc., where he held the position of a lead project engineer and principle investigator for advanced simulation methodology, model-based verification, and simulation interoperability efforts. Professor Yilmaz received his Ph.D. and M.S. degrees from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA. Tuncer I. OEren is professor emeritus of computer science at the School of Information Technology and Engineering (SITE) of the University of Ottawa, Canada, where he held a chair as full professor from 1981 to 1996. Professor OEren's research interests focus on the topics of modelling and simulation, agent-directed simulation, cognitive simulation, reliability and quality, and ethics in simulation. He has published over 300 papers and several books.

Contents

Foreword VII Preface XIX List of Contributors XXIII Part One Background 1 1 Modeling and Simulation: a Comprehensive and Integrative View 3 Tuncer I. OEren 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Simulation: Several Perspectives 4 1.2.1 Purpose of Use 4 1.2.2 Problem to Be Solved 8 1.2.3 Connectivity of Operations 9 1.2.4 M&S as a Type of Knowledge Processing 9 1.2.5 M&S from the Perspective of Philosophy of Science 13 1.3 Model-Based Activities 13 1.3.1 Model Building 15 1.3.2 Model-Base Management 15 1.3.3 Model Processing 15 1.3.4 Behavior Generation 17 1.4 Synergies of M&S: Mutual and Higher-Order Contributions 20 1.5 Advancement of M&S 20 1.6 Preeminence of M&S 24 1.6.1 Physical Tools 27 1.6.2 Knowledge-Based or Soft Tools 27 1.6.3 Knowledge Generation Tools 30 1.7 Summary and Conclusions 32 2 Autonomic Introspective Simulation Systems 37 Levent Yilmaz and Bradley Mitchell 2.1 Introduction 37 2.2 Perspective and Background on Autonomic Systems 39 2.3 Decentralized Autonomic Simulation Systems: Prospects and Issues 41 2.3.1 Motivating Scenario: Adaptive Experience Management in Distributed Mission Training 41 2.3.2 An Architectural Framework for Decentralized Autonomic Simulation Systems 42 2.3.3 Challenges and Issues 44 2.4 Symbiotic Adaptive Multisimulation: An Autonomic Simulation System 47 2.4.1 Metamodels for Introspection Layer Design 48 2.4.2 Local Adaptation: First-Order Change via Particle Swarm Optimizer 50 2.4.3 The Learning Layer: Genetic Search of Potential System Configurations 51 2.4.4 SAMS Component Architecture 52 2.5 Case Study: UAV Search and Attack Scenario 55 2.5.1 Input Factors 56 2.5.2 Agent Specifications 57 2.6 Validation and Preliminary Experimentation with SAMS 64 2.6.1 Face Validity of the UAV Model 65 2.6.2 Experiments with the Parallel SAMS Application 67 2.7 Summary 70 Part Two Agents and Modeling and Simulation 73 3 Agents: Agenthood, Agent Architectures, and Agent Taxonomies 75 Andreas Tolk and Adelinde M. Uhrmacher 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 Agenthood 76 3.2.1 Defining Agents 76 3.2.2 Situated Environment and Agent Society 78 3.3 Agent Architectures 79 3.3.1 Realizing Situatedness 79 3.3.2 Realizing Autonomy 81 3.3.3 Realizing Flexibility 82 3.3.4 Architectures and Characteristics 84 3.4 Agenthood Implications for Practical Applications 86 3.4.1 Systems Engineering, Simulation, and Agents 87 3.4.2 Modeling and Simulating Human Behavior for Systems Engineering 88 3.4.3 Simulation-Based Testing in Systems Engineering 91 3.4.4 Simulation as Support for Decision Making in Systems Engineering 93 3.4.5 Implications for Modeling and Simulation Methods 94 3.5 Agent Taxonomies 96 3.5.1 History and Application-Specific Taxonomies 96 3.5.2 Categorizing the Agent Space 99 3.6 Concluding Discussion 101 4 Agent-directed Simulation 111 Levent Yilmaz and Tuncer I. OEren 4.1 Introduction 111 4.2 Background 113 4.2.1 Software Agents 113 4.2.2 Complexity 113 4.2.3 Complex Systems of Systems 114 4.2.4 Software Agents within the Spectrum of Computational Paradigms 115 4.3 Categorizing the Use of Agents in Simulation 118 4.3.1 Agent Simulation 118 4.3.2 Agent-Based Simulation 119 4.3.3 Agent-Supported Simulation 119 4.4 Agent Simulation 120 4.4.1 A Metamodel for Agent System Models 120 4.4.2 A Taxonomy for Modeling Agent System Models 122 4.4.3 Using Agents as Model Design Metaphors: Agent-Based Modeling 123 4.4.4 Simulation of Agent Systems 127 4.5 Agent-Based Simulation 129 4.5.1 Autonomic Introspective Simulation 130 4.5.2 Agent-Coordinated Simulator for Exploratory Multisimulation 131 4.6 Agent-Supported Simulation 134 4.6.1 Agent-Mediated Interoperation of Simulations 135 4.6.2 Agent-Supported Simulation for Decision Support 139 4.7 Summary 141 Part Three Systems Engineering and Quality Assurance for Agent-Directed Simulation 145 5 Systems Engineering: Basic Concepts and Life Cycle 147 Steven M. Biemer and Andrew P. Sage 5.1 Introduction 147 5.2 Agent-Based Systems Engineering 148 5.3 Systems Engineering Definition and Attributes 148 5.3.1 Knowledge 149 5.3.2 People and Information Management 150 5.3.3 Processes 151 5.3.4 Methods and Tools 156 5.3.5 The Need for Systems Engineering 157 5.4 The System Life Cycle 157 5.4.1 Conceptual Design (Requirements Analysis) 160 5.4.2 Preliminary Design (Systems Architecting) 161 5.4.3 Detailed Design and Development 161 5.4.4 Production and Construction 163 5.4.5 Operational Use and System Support 164 5.5 Key Concepts of Systems Engineering 164 5.5.1 Integrating Perspectives into the Whole 164 5.5.2 Risk Management 165 5.5.3 Decisions and Trade Studies (the Strength of Alternatives) 166 5.5.4 Modeling and Evaluating the System 168 5.6 Summary 169 6 Quality Assurance of Simulation Studies of Complex Networked Agent Systems 173 Osman Balci, William F. Ormsby, and Levent Yilmaz 6.1 Introduction 173 6.2 Characteristics of Open Agent Systems 174 6.3 Issues in the Quality Assurance of Agent Simulations 175 6.4 Large-Scale Open Complex Systems The Network-Centric System Metaphor 177 6.5 M&S Challenges for Large-Scale Open Complex Systems 179 6.6 Quality Assessment of Simulations of Large-Scale Open Systems 181 6.7 Conclusions 186 7 Failure Avoidance in Agent-directed Simulation: Beyond Conventional v&v and qa 189 Tuncer I. OEren and Levent Yilmaz 7.1 Introduction 189 7.1.1 The Need for a Fresh Look 189 7.1.2 Basic Terms 191 7.2 What Can Go Wrong 192 7.2.1 Increasing Importance of M&S 192 7.2.2 Contributions of Simulation to Failure Avoidance 192 7.2.3 Need for Failure Avoidance in Simulation Studies 194 7.2.4 Some Sources of Failure in M&S 196 7.3 Assessment for M&S 198 7.3.1 Types of Assessment 198 7.3.2 Criteria for Assessment 200 7.3.3 Elements of M&S to be Studied 200 7.4 Need for Multiparadigm Approach for Successful M&S Projects 200 7.4.1 V&V Paradigm for Successful M&S Projects 201 7.4.2 QA Paradigm for Successful M&S Projects 203 7.4.3 Failure Avoidance Paradigm for Successful M&S Projects 204 7.4.4 Lessons Learned and Best Practices for Successful M&S Projects 204 7.5 Failure Avoidance for Agent-Based Modeling 206 7.5.1 Failure Avoidance in Rule-Based Systems 207 7.5.2 Failure Avoidance in Autonomous Systems 208 7.5.3 Failure Avoidance in Agents with Personality, Emotions, and Cultural Background 209 7.5.4 Failure Avoidance in Inputs 210 7.6 Failure Avoidance for Systems Engineering 212 7.7 Conclusion 213 8 Toward Systems Engineering for Agent-directed Simulation 219 Levent Yilmaz 8.1 Introduction 219 8.2 What Is a System? 220 8.2.1 What Is Systems Engineering? 220 8.2.2 The Functions of Systems Engineering 220 8.3 Modeling and Simulation 221 8.4 The Synergy of M&S and SE 221 8.4.1 The Role of M&S in Systems 221 8.4.2 Why Does M&S Require SE? 222 8.4.3 Why Is SSE Necessary? 222 8.5 Toward Systems Engineering for Agent-Directed Simulation 222 8.5.1 The Essence of Complex Adaptive Open Systems (CAOS) 223 8.5.2 The Merits of ADS 224 8.5.3 Systems Engineering for Agent-Directed Simulation 225 8.6 Sociocognitive Framework for ADS-SE 225 8.6.1 Social-Cognitive View 226 8.6.2 The Dimensions of Representation 227 8.6.3 The Functions for Analysis 228 8.7 Case Study: Human-Centered Work Systems 228 8.7.1 Operational Level Organizational Subsystem 229 8.7.2 Operational Level Organizational Subsystem 230 8.7.3 Operational Level Integration of Organization and Social Subsystems 232 8.7.4 The Technical Level 232 8.8 Conclusions 235 9 Design and Analysis of Organization Adaptation in Agent Systems 237 Virginia Dignum, Frank Dignum, and Liz Sonenberg 9.1 Introduction 237 9.2 Organizational Model 239 9.3 Organizational Structure 240 9.3.1 Organizational Structures in Organization Theory 240 9.3.2 Organizational Structures in Multiagent Systems 241 9.4 Organization and Environment 242 9.4.1 Environment Characteristics 242 9.4.2 Congruence 244 9.5 Organization and Autonomy 245 9.6 Reorganization 247 9.6.1 Organizational Utility 247 9.6.2 Organizational Change 248 9.7 Organizational Design 250 9.7.1 Designing Organizational Simulations 252 9.7.2 Application Scenario 253 9.8 Understanding Simulation of Reorganization 256 9.8.1 Reorganization Dimensions 257 9.8.2 Analyzing Simulation Case Studies 257 9.9 Conclusions 263 10 Programming Languages, Environments, and Tools for Agent-directed Simulation 269 Yu Zhang, Mark Lewis, and Maarten Sierhuis 10.1 Introduction 269 10.2 Architectural Style for ADS 271 10.3 Agent-Directed Simulation An Overview 272 10.3.1 Language 273 10.3.2 Environment 275 10.3.3 Service 276 10.3.4 Application 276 10.4 A Survey of Five ADS Platforms 277 10.4.1 Ascape 277 10.4.2 NetLogo 280 10.4.3 Repast 283 10.4.4 Swarm 286 10.4.5 Mason 289 10.5 Brahms A Multiagent Simulation for Work System Analysis and Design 291 10.5.1 Language 291 10.5.2 Environment 295 10.5.3 Service 298 10.5.4 Application 299 10.6 CASESim A Multiagent Simulation for Cognitive Agents for Social Environment 300 10.6.1 Language 302 10.6.2 Environment 302 10.6.3 Service 306 10.6.4 Application 310 10.7 Conclusion 312 11 Simulation for Systems Engineering 317 Joachim Fuchs 11.1 Introduction 317 11.2 The Systems Engineering Process 317 11.3 Modeling and Simulation Support 318 11.4 Facilities 320 11.5 An Industrial Use Case: Space Systems 321 11.5.1 Simulators for Analysis and Design 323 11.5.2 Facility for Spacecraft Qualification and Acceptance 325 11.5.3 Facility for Ground System Qualification and Testing and Operations 325 11.6 Outlook 325 11.7 Conclusions 327 12 Agent-directed Simulation for Systems Engineering 329 Philip S. Barry, Matthew T.K. Koehler, and Brian F. Tivnan 12.1 Introduction 329 12.2 New Approaches Are Needed 331 12.2.1 Employing ADS Through the Framework of Empirical Relevance 332 12.2.2 Simulating Systems of Systems 334 12.3 Agent-Directed Simulation for the Systems Engineering of Human Complex Systems 336 12.3.1 A Call for Agents in the Study of Human Complex Systems 337 12.3.2 Noteworthy Agent-Directed Simulations in the Science of Human Complex Systems 338 12.4 A Model-Centered Science of Human Complex Systems 338 12.5 An Infrastructure for the Engineering of Human Complex Systems 339 12.5.1 Components of the Infrastructure for Complex Systems Engineering 339 12.5.2 Modeling Goodness 341 12.5.3 The Genetic Algorithm Optimization Toolkit 341 12.6 Case Studies 344 12.6.1 Case Study 1: Defending The Stadium 345 12.6.2 Case Study 2: Secondary Effects from Pandemic Influenza 350 12.7 Summary 355 Part Four Agent-Directed Simulation for Systems Engineering 361 13 Agent-implemented Experimental Frames for Net-centric Systems Test and Evaluation 363 Bernard P. Zeigler, Dane Hall, and Manuel Salas 13.1 Introduction 363 13.2 The Need for Verification Requirements 364 13.3 Experimental Frames and System Entity Structures 366 13.4 Decomposition and Design of System Architecture 371 13.5 Employing Agents in M&S-Based Design, Verification and Validation 376 13.6 Experimental Frame Concepts for Agent Implementation 378 13.7 Agent-Implemented Experimental Frames 381 13.8 DEVS/SOA: Net-Centric Execution Using Simulation Service 382 13.8.1 Automation of Agent Attachment to System Components 382 13.8.2 DEVS-Agent Communications/Coordination 384 13.8.3 DEVS-Agent EndomorphicModels 386 13.9 Summary and Conclusions 388 13.A cAutoDEVS A Tool for the Bifurcated Methodology 391 14 Agents and Decision Support Systems 399 Andreas Tolk, Poornima Madhavan, Jeffrey W. Tweedale, and Lakhmi C. Jain 14.1 Introduction 399 14.1.1 History 399 14.1.2 Motivating Agent-Directed Decision Support Simulation Systems 401 14.1.3 Working Definitions 403 14.2 Cognitive Foundations for Decision Support 405 14.2.1 Decision Support Systems as Social Actors 406 14.2.2 How to Present the System to the User and Improve Trust 407 14.2.3 Relevance for the Engineer 410 14.3 Technical Foundations for Decision Support 411 14.3.1 Machine-Based Understanding for Decision Support 412 14.3.2 Requirements for Systems When Being Used for Decision Support 413 14.3.3 Agent-Directed Multimodel and Multisimulation Support 417 14.3.4 Methods Applicable to Support Agent-Directed Decision Support Simulation Systems 418 14.4 Examples for Intelligent and Agent-Directed Decision Support Simulation Systems 421 14.4.1 Supporting Command and Control 421 14.4.2 Supporting Inventory Control and Integrated Logistics 423 14.5 Conclusion 426 15 Agent Simulation for Software Process Performance Analysis 433 Levent Yilmaz and Jared Phillips 15.1 Introduction 433 15.2 Related Work 435 15.2.1 Organization-Theoretic Perspective for Simulation-Based Analysis of Software Processes 435 15.2.2 Simulation Methods for Software Process Performance Analysis 436 15.3 Team-RUP: A Framework for Agent Simulation of Software Development Organizations 437 15.3.1 Organization Structure 437 15.3.2 Team-RUP Task Model 438 15.3.3 Team-RUP Team Archetypes and Cooperation Mechanisms 439 15.3.4 Reward Mechanism in Team-RUP 440 15.4 Design and Implementation of Team-RUP 441 15.4.1 Performance Metrics 443 15.4.2 Validation of the Model 444 15.5 Results and Discussion 445 15.6 Conclusions 447 16 Agent-Directed Simulation for Manufacturing System Engineering 451 Jeffrey S. Smith, Erdal Sahin, and Levent Yilmaz 16.1 Introduction 451 16.1.1 Manufacturing Systems 452 16.1.2 Agent-Based Modeling 453 16.2 Simulation Modeling and Analysis for Manufacturing Systems 454 16.2.1 Manufacturing System Design 455 16.2.2 Manufacturing Operation 458 16.3 Agent-Directed Simulation for Manufacturing Systems 463 16.3.1 Emergent Approaches 463 16.3.2 Agent-Based Manufacturing 464 16.3.3 The Holonic Approach: Hierarchic Open Agent Systems 466 16.4 Summary 468 17 Organization and Work Systems Design and Engineering: from Simulation to Implementation of Multiagent Systems 475 Maarten Sierhuis,William J. Clancey, and Chin H. Seah 17.1 Introduction 475 17.2 Work Systems Design 475 17.2.1 Existing Work System Design Methods 476 17.2.2 A Brief History of Work Systems Design 477 17.3 Modeling and Simulation of Work Systems 478 17.3.1 Designing Work Systems: What Is the Purpose and What Can Go Wrong? 478 17.3.2 The Difficulty of Convincing Management 479 17.4 Work Practice Modeling and Simulation 480 17.4.1 Practice vs. Process 481 17.4.2 Modeling Work Practice 481 17.5 The Brahms Language 487 17.5.1 Simulation or Execution with Brahms 488 17.5.2 Modeling People and Organizations 489 17.5.3 Modeling Artifacts and Data Objects 490 17.5.4 Modeling Communication 492 17.5.5 Modeling Location and Movement 493 17.5.6 Java Integration 495 17.6 Systems Engineering: From Simulation to Implementation 496 17.6.1 A Cyclic Approach 498 17.6.2 Modeling Current Operations 499 17.6.3 Modeling Future Operations 501 17.6.4 MAS Implementation 502 17.7 A Case Study: The OCA Mirroring System 503 17.7.1 Mission Control as a Socio-Technical Work System 504 17.7.2 The OCA Officer s Work System 505 17.7.3 Simulating the Current OCA Work System 505 17.7.4 Designing the Future OCA Work System 510 17.7.5 Simulating the Future OCA Work System 511 17.7.6 Implementing OCAMS 511 17.8 Conclusion 514 Index 517

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527407811
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 550
  • ID: 9783527407811
  • weight: 1178
  • ISBN10: 3527407812

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