Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water and Infrastructure (Wiley Finance Series)

Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water and Infrastructure (Wiley Finance Series)

By: Helyette Geman (author)Hardback

1 - 2 weeks availability

Description

A comprehensive resource for understanding the complexities of agricultural finance Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water, and Infrastructure is a pioneering book that offers a comprehensive resource for understanding the worldwide agriculture markets, from spikes in agricultural commodity prices to trading strategies, and the agribusiness industry generally to the challenges of feeding the planet in particular. The book also goes in-depth on the topics of land, water, fertilizers, biofuels, and ethanol. Written by Helyette Geman-an industry expert in commodity derivatives-this book explores the agricultural marketplace and the cycles in agricultural commodity prices that can be the key to investor success. This resource addresses a wide range of other important topics as well, including agricultural insurance, energy, shipping and bunker prices, sustainability, investments in land, subsidies, agricultural derivatives, and farming risk-management. Other topics covered include structured products and agricultural commodities ETFs; trade finance in an era of credit shortage; securitization and commodity-linked notes; grains: wheat, corn, soybeans; softs: coffee, cocoa, cotton; shipping as a key component of agricultural trade; and the major agricultural shipping routes and the costs. The book: * Offers the first comprehensive resource that deals with the all aspects of agricultural finance * Includes information that is crucial for pension funds, asset managers, hedge funds, agribusiness corporates, CTAs and regulators * Covers a range of topics from agricultural bunker prices, futures, options to major shipping routes and the costs This text is a must-have resource for accessing the information required to trade successfully in the agricultural marketplace.

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About Author

HELYETTE GEMAN is Director of the Commodity Finance Centre at Birkbeck, University of London and Research Professor at Johns Hopkins University. She is a graduate of Ecole Normale Superieure in Mathematics, holds a Masters degree in Theoretical Physics and a PhD in Probability from the University Pierre et Marie Curie; and a PhD in Finance from the University Paris Sorbonne. Professor Geman has published more than 130 papers in top international finance, insurance and energy economics Journals, became in 1993 a Member of Honour of the French Society of Actuaries for her work on Catastrophic risk; received in 1994 the first Prize of the Merrill Lynch awards for her research on Asian and complex options; was named in 2004 in the Hall of Fame of Energy Risk. She has been a scientific advisor to major financial institutions, energy and mining companies and commodity houses for the last 21 years, covering the spectrum of interest rates, crude oil and natural gas, metals and agricultural, including water, fertilizers and land. Her book Insurance and Weather Derivatives was published in 1999 by RISK Publications; her book entitled Commodities and Commodity Derivatives: Energy, Metals and Agriculturals published by Wiley Finance in 2005 has become the reference in industry and Master programmes worldwide. Prof Geman counts among her PhD students Nassim Taleb. She is presently on the Board of a green energy company and an active participant in a 'precision farming' project involving 12,500 farmers in East Africa.

Contents

Acknowledgments xiii About the Author xv Preamble xvii 1 Physical and Financial Agricultural Markets 1 1.1 Agriculture and the Beginning of Human Sedentarization 1 1.1.1 Some recent numbers 2 1.1.2 The growing role of Africa 2 1.2 The Outlook of Agricultural Commodities Markets 3 1.2.1 Recent mergers and acquisitions 3 1.2.2 'Trading places': from the abcd to the now 4 1.2.3 The physical markets 9 1.2.4 The global flows of commodities 10 1.2.5 Back to the future: a new age for barter 11 1.2.6 The sources of information in agricultural commodity markets 12 1.3 History of Commodity Futures and Spot Markets 12 1.3.1 The actors in financial markets 12 1.3.2 The actors in agricultural commodity exchanges 13 1.3.3 The growth of Futures markets exchanges and the recent mergers 14 1.3.4 Futures markets and price volatility 15 1.3.5 The role of indexes in the creation of efficient commodity spot markets 16 1.3.6 Commodities and numeraire 17 1.4 Shipping and Freight 17 1.4.1 International trade 18 1.4.2 Price formation in freight markets 18 2 Agricultural Commodity Spot Markets 25 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Price Formation in Agricultural Commodity Markets 25 2.3 Volatility in Agricultural Markets 27 2.3.1 Volatility of the price level versus return in agricultural commodity markets 32 2.3.2 Which factors drive volatility? 36 2.3.3 Conclusion 38 3 Futures Exchanges - Future and Forward Prices - Theory of Storage - The Forward Curve 39 3.1 Major Commodity Exchanges 39 3.2 Forward Contracts 41 3.3 Futures Contracts 43 3.3.1 Definition 43 3.3.2 Exchange of Futures for physicals (efp) 44 3.4 Relationship between Forward and Futures Prices 45 3.5 Example of a Future Spread 47 3.6 Inventory and Theory of Storage 47 3.6.1 Spot and Futures prices volatilities 49 3.6.2 Development of the theory of storage: inventory and prices 51 3.7 The Benefits of Forward Curves 52 3.7.1 Trading strategies around forward curves 52 3.7.2 Example of a seasonality-based Futures spread 53 3.7.3 From linear to convex payoffs 54 3.8 Stochastic Modeling of the Forward Curve 55 4 Plain Vanilla Options on Commodity Spot and Forward Prices. The Bachelier-Black-Scholes Formula, the Merton Formula, the Black Formula 59 4.1 Introduction 59 4.2 Classical Strategies involving European Calls and Puts 62 4.2.1 Straddle 62 4.2.2 Strangle 62 4.2.3 Call spread or vertical call spread 63 4.2.4 Butterfly spread 64 4.3 Put-Call Parity for a Non-dividend Paying Stock 64 4.4 Valuation of European Calls: the Bachelier-Black-Scholes Formula and the Greeks 66 4.4.1 Consequences of the Black-Scholes formula 70 4.4.2 The Greeks 71 4.5 The Merton (1973) Formula for Dividend-paying Stocks 75 4.6 Options on Commodity Spot Prices 77 4.7 Options on Commodity Futures: the Black (1976) Formula 78 4.8 Monte-Carlo Simulations for Option Pricing 79 4.8.1 The founding result 79 4.8.2 Monte-Carlo methods for plain vanilla options on non-dividend paying stocks 80 4.8.3 Monte-Carlo methods for plain vanilla options on the spot commodity 82 4.9 Implied Volatility, Smile, and Skew in Equity Option Markets 83 4.10 Volatility Smile in Agricultural Commodity Markets 86 4.10.1 W here is the liquidity in agricultural commodity option markets? 86 4.10.2 Extracting the implied volatility from options on commodity Futures 86 5 Commodity Swaps, Swaptions, Accumulators, Forward-Start, and Asian Options 89 5.1 Swaps and Swaptions 89 5.2 Accumulators 92 5.3 Forward-Start Options (or Calendar Spread Options on the Spot Price) 93 5.4 Asian Options as Key Instruments in Commodity Markets 95 5.4.1 Approximation of the arithmetic average by a geometric average 96 5.4.2 Approximation of the distribution of the arithmetic average by a log-normal distribution 97 5.4.3 Monte-Carlo simulations for Asian options valuation 98 5.4.4 Exact results (Geman and Yor, 1993) 100 5.5 Trading the Shape of the Forward Curve through Floating-strike Asian Options 102 6 Exchange, Spread, and Quanto Options in Commodity Markets 103 6.1 Exchange Options 103 6.2 Commodity Spread Options and Their Importance in Commodity Markets 105 6.3 Commodity Quanto Options 109 7 Grain Cereals: Corn, Wheat, Soybean, Rice, and Sorghum 113 7.1 Introduction 113 7.2 Corn 113 7.3 Wheat 118 7.3.1 W heat trading 119 7.3.2 Global wheat 119 7.3.3 The wheat supply chain 120 7.4 Soybeans 123 7.5 Rice 126 7.6 Sorghum 129 8 Sugar, Cocoa, Coffee, and Tea 133 8.1 Sugar 133 8.1.1 Links of sugar with other commodities 134 8.1.2 Sugar trading 135 8.1.3 The European Union 136 8.1.4 Special relations of the eu with other countries 136 8.1.5 The United States 136 8.1.6 Special relations of the usa with other countries 137 8.1.7 Brazil 137 8.1.8 China 138 8.1.9 India 138 8.1.10 Thailand 139 8.1.11 Australia 139 8.1.12 Guatemala and Cuba 139 8.1.13 Sugar cane in Mauritius 140 8.2 Cocoa 140 8.3 Coffee 146 8.4 Tea 149 9 Cotton, Timber and Wood, Pulp and Paper, Wool 153 9.1 Cotton 153 9.2 Lumber and Wood 156 9.3 Pulp and Paper 158 9.3.1 Pulp NBSK and BHKP indexes 159 9.3.2 Pulp US NBSK index 160 9.3.3 Pulp BHKP China 160 9.3.4 Pulp NBSK China 161 9.3.5 When bank notes go plastic 161 9.4 Wool and Cashmere 162 9.4.1 Cashmere 163 9.4.2 From the Kashmir Goat to high quality yarns 164 10 Orange Juice, Livestock, Dairy, and Fishery 165 10.1 Orange Juice 165 10.2 Livestock 166 10.2.1 Livestock markets 167 10.2.2 Cattle 168 10.2.3 Hogs 169 10.2.4 Pork bellies 169 10.2.5 The US live cattle contract specifications 170 10.2.6 Australia 171 10.2.7 The USA 171 10.3 Dairy 172 10.4 Fish Markets 173 10.5 Poultry and Eggs 174 11 Rubber, Palm Oil, and Biofuels 177 11.1 Rubber 177 11.2 Palm Oil 180 11.2.1 The oil palm and palm oil 181 11.2.2 Markets 182 11.3 Ethanol, Biofuels, and Biomass 183 12 Land, Water, and Fertilizers 187 12.1 Land Types, Yields, and Erosion 187 12.1.1 Yield-at-risk 187 12.1.2 Land competition 188 12.1.3 Farmland in the USA 188 12.2 Fertilizers 189 12.2.1 Fertilizer markets 191 12.2.2 Fertilizer Index, corn, and wheat price trajectories over the period 1991 to 2011 193 12.2.3 Fertilizer producing companies and share price returns over the period 2004 to 2011 193 12.2.4 A factor model for the share returns of fertilizer firms 198 12.3 Water and its crucial Role in the World Economy 207 12.3.1 The case of Australia, China, and Saudi Arabia 208 12.3.2 The case of Brazil 208 12.3.3 Competition for electricity, water, and land 209 12.4 Projections for the Future of Agriculture 209 12.4.1 Farm insurance 210 12.4.2 Estimating long-term agricultural supply 210 12.4.3 Market concentration 211 12.4.4 Spare capacity 211 12.5 Subsidies and Export Bans 211 12.5.1 Subsidies 212 12.5.2 Export bans 212 12.6 Market-oriented Farming 212 12.6.1 Open wheat market takes root in Canada 213 12.6.2 Kansas City wheat Futures trading coming to an end after 157 years 213 12.6.3 China food needs 214 13 Infrastructure and Farming Management in the Digital Age 217 13.1 Introduction 217 13.2 Agricultural Infrastructure 218 13.2.1 Total factor productivity 218 13.2.2 Climate change 219 13.2.3 Irrigation and increased productivity 219 13.2.4 Trends in irrigation 219 13.2.5 Storage 220 13.2.6 Grain elevators 220 13.2.7 Soybean crushers 220 13.2.8 The Brave New World of Monsanto 221 13.2.9 Infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa 221 13.2.10 Gabon: after black gold, green gold? 221 13.2.11 Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) in Nigeria 222 13.2.12 Digital age on the farm: prescriptive planting 222 13.2.13 Sugar biofactory for ethanol in Brazil 224 13.2.14 After ethanol, railway, and natural gas 224 13.2.15 From iron ore mining to cattle farming in Australia 225 13.2.16 Robots for cow milking 225 13.2.17 Containers for agricultural commodities 226 13.2.18 Singapore as a hub for refrigeration containers 226 13.2.19 The trip of the banana 226 13.2.20 Energy, water, and infrastructure for DAP and agriculture in Saudi Arabia 227 13.3 Country Risk: the Example of Ukraine in 2014 227 13.4 Analyzing the Risks Involved in an International Wheat Tender Offer 228 13.5 Weather Risk and Weather Derivatives 229 14 Investing in Agricultural Commodities, Land, and Physical Assets 233 14.1 Purchase of Commodity Futures 233 14.2 Purchase of Commodity Options and Structured Products 235 14.3 Commodity Index Investing 236 14.3.1 Some prominent commodity indexes 236 14.3.2 How commodity indices are constructed 238 14.3.3 Commodity-linked bonds 239 14.4 Investing in Commodity-related Equities 239 14.5 Investing in Land 240 14.5.1 The US case 241 14.5.2 The world case 241 14.6 Acquisition of Infrastructure and Physical Assets 242 14.6.1 Valuation of a transformation plant using a real options approach 242 14.6.2 D CF approach to the valuation of a transformation plant 243 14.6.3 Valuation of a silo (or an aquifer, or any storage facility) 245 14.7 Conclusion 247 Glossary 248 References 252 Index 257

Product Details

  • publication date: 13/01/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118827383
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 288
  • ID: 9781118827383
  • weight: 654
  • ISBN10: 1118827384

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  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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