Despite the current technological advancement, agriculture is still a vital source of livelihood. It is essentially dependent on weather and climate, and adversely affected by extreme events in this respect. Over the past few decades, extreme events such as droughts, floods, storms, tropical cyclones and forest fires have destroyed economic and social infrastructure and at the same time endangered food security. The agricultural sector is affected through the impact on water resources, damage to crops, rangelands and forests, due to incidence of droughts, locust plagues and wildland fires. While natural hazards may not be avoided, the integration of risk assessment and early warnings, with prevention and mitigation measures, can prevent them from becoming disasters. Improved forecast accuracy and mroe focused information on the location, intensity and duration of climate extremes could underpin efforts to implement more effective risk management strategies. This book, based on state of the art knowledge on the science and application of agricultural meteorology needed to better cope with extreme climate events, should be of interest to all organizations and agencies engaged in planning disaster reduction strategies and mitigation of extreme events.
Dr. Haripada Das, former Deputy Director General of Meteorology of the India Meteorological Department was in-charge of the Division of Agricultural Meteorology, Pune and in that capacit, has been executing the operational and research projects of the Division. He has actively participated in many Agricultural Meteorology Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a member/chairman/leader of several Working Groups and Expert Teams of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology. With over 35 years of experience in agrometeorological research and applications and teaching in various aspects of Agricultural Meteorology, Dr. Das has authored over 175 research papers and articles, as well as several other technical publications including WMO Techinical Notes and Training materials. He is a recipient of the award of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology for his outstanding contributions and exceptional service to the commission.
1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EXTREME EVENTS IN RELATION TO AGROMETEOROLOGY 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Natural Disasters - Definitions and Types 1.3 The Role of Meteorological Data and Information 1.4 Socio-economic Impact of Extreme Events 1.5 Positive Impact on Agriculture of Extreme Events 1.6 Negative Impact on Agriculture of Extreme Events 1.7 Impact of Natural Disasters on Rangeland and Forestry 1.8 Impact of Natural Disasters on environment 1.9 Extreme events and risk management in agriculture 1.10 Early Warning Systems for Extreme Events 1.11 Remote Sensing Techniques for Disaster Risk Management 1.12 Prevention of and Preparedness for Extreme Events 1.13 Rehabilitation 1.14 Implications and Future Needs 2. DROUGHT AND DESERTIFICATION 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Concept of Drought 2.3 Drought and Aridity 2.4 Classification of Drought 2.4.1 Meteorological drought 2.4.2 Agricultural drought 2.4.3 Hydrological drought 2.4.4 Socio-economic drought 2.5 Space-time Characteristics of Drought 2.5.1 Spatial extent 2.5.2 Beginning and end of drought 2.6 Causes of Drought 2.7 Monitoring and Early Warning of Drought 2.8 Drought Indices 2.8.1 Meteorological drought indices 2.8.2 Agricultural indices of drought 2.8.3 Hydrological drought indices 2.9 Drought Prediction 2.10 Impacts of drought 2.10.1 Drought and agriculture 2.10.2 Response of plants to drought condition 2.11 Socio-economic Aspects of Drought 2.12 Beneficial Aspects of Drought 2.13 Drought Risk Reduction Strategies 2.14 Adaptations and Adjustments to Drought 2.15 Drought Management 2.16 Drought Planning and Climate Change 2.17 Drought Mitigation 2.18 Drought Index Insurance 2.19 Drought and human health 2.20 Desertification 2.20.1 Definition of desertification 2.21 Distribution of Desertification 2.22 Desertification Trend 2.23 Desertification Processes 2.23.1 Agrometeorological aspects in the desertification process 2.24 Causes of Desertification 2.24.1 Natural factors leading to desertification 2.24.2 Anthropogenic factors 2.25 Desertification and Feedback Mechanism 2.26 Desertification and Development 2.27 Monitoring and Assessment of Desertification 2.27.1 Remote sensing application 2.27.2 Meteorlogical and hydrological analysis 2.27.3 Universal soil loss equation 2.28 Strategies to Combat Desertification References 3. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING TO COMBAT MOISTURE DEFICIT IN PLANTS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Irrigation Scheduling of Crops 3.2.1 Irrigation scheduling under adequate water supply 3.2.2 Irrigation scheduling under limited water supply 3.3 Irrigation Methods 3.4 Components of Irrigation Schedule 3.4.1 Water application depth 3.4.2 Water application duration 3.4.3 Water application timing and irrigation interval 3.4.4 Net irrigation requirements 3.4.5 Leaching requirements 3.5 Irrigation Scheduling Techniques 3.5.1 Plant observation 3.5.2 Soil moisture meters 3.5.3 Cumulative pan evaporation 3.5.4 Soil water budget 3.6 The Soil Water Balance Method 3.6.1 Simple scheduling method 3.6.2 Rapid scheduling method 3.6.3 Graphical scheduling method 3.6.4 Real time scheduling 3.7 Irrigation Efficiencies 3.8 Gross Irrigation Requirements References 4. HEAVY RAINS, FLOODS, HAILS AND SNOW AND THEIR IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Floods and their Cause 4.3 Forecasting and Warning of Flood for Safety Measures 4.3.1 Flash floods forecasting 4.4 Flood Control and Management 4.5 Protection against Floods 4.6 Flood Fighting 4.7 Livelihood Security in the Flood Plains 4.8 Heavy Rains and Flooding and their Impacts on Agriculture 4.9 Water-logging and its Effect on Plants 4.10 Symptoms of Flooding Damage 4.11 Causes of Flooding Damage 4.12 Mitigation of Flood Damage on Agricultural Sector 4.13 Landslides 4.13.1 Control of landslides 4.14 Avalanches 4.15 The Erosion Process and its Agricultural Implications 4.15.1 Fluvial erosion 4.16 Coastal Erosion and Protection 4.16.1 Sea waves 4.16.2 Tide-storm surges 4.16.3 Near-shore currents 4.17 Hail 4.17.1 Temporal and spatial distribution of hail 4.17.2 Hail and crop damage 4.17.3 Hail forecasting methods 4.17.4 Hail prevention 4.18 Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground 4.18.1 Hydrological aspects of snow and ice 4.18.2 Thermal aspects of snow 4.18.3 Regular snowfall and its implications for agriculture 4.18.4 Intermittent snowfall and its implications for agriculture 4.18.5 Wind breaks and snow deposition References 5. TROPICAL CYCLONES, STORM SURGES, THUNDERSTORMS, TORNADOES AND SQUALLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Geographical Distribution of Tropical Cyclones 5.3 Energy of Tropical Cyclones 5.4 Atmospheric Parameters and Tropical Cyclone Formation 5.5 Structure of the Tropical Cyclone 5.6 Heavy Rain associated with Tropical Cyclones 5.7 Storm Surges 5.7.1 Protection from the storm surge 5.8 Monitoring and Forecasting of Tropical Cyclones 5.9 Destruction caused by Tropical Storms 5.9.1 Salt deposition in coastal areas 5.10 Agrometeorological Loss associated with Cyclones 5.11 Socio-Economic Vulnerability 5.12 Beneficial Impact of Cyclonic Storms 5.13 Cyclone Warning Systems 5.14 Cyclone Disaster Management and Mitigation Measures 5.14.1 Prevention and preparedness planning 5.14.2 Cyclone preparedness in the agricultural system 5.14.3 Cyclone preparedness for non-agricultural sector 5.14.4 Evacuation 5.15 Mitigation Measures 5.16 Community-based Vulnerability Reduction Programmes 5.16.1 Community based capacity building and livelihood concern 5.17 Thunderstorms 5.17.1 Conditions favourable for thunderstorms 5.17.2 Beneficial effects of thunderstorms 5.17.3 Thunderstorms hazards 5.18 Squall Lines 5.19 Tornadoes and Water Spouts 5.19.1 Meteorological forecasts and warnings for tornedoes 5.19.2 Precautions for safety References 6. AGROMETEOROLOGY RELATED TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES, HEAT WAVES AND FROST 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Effect of Extremely High Temperature (including heat waves) on plants 6.2.1 Heat waves and crop production 6.3 Mitigation Practices to Cope with High Temperatures 6.4 Effect of Low Temperature and Cold Spell on Plants 6.4.1 Chilling damage 6.4.2 Plant freezing damage 6.5 Frost 6.5.1 Causes of frost 6.5.2 Effect of frost on plants 6.5.3 Intensity of frost damage to plants in relation to soil temperature and snow cover 6.5.4 Protection against frost damage 6.5.5 Forecast and warning of frost 6.6 Climate and Animal Husbandry 6.6.1 Effect on livestock of extreme temperatures 6.6.2 Effect on livestock of low temperatures 6.6.3 Effect on livestock of high temperatures 6.7 Provision of Proper Environmental Conditions for Livestock 6.8 Effect of Climatic Factors Particularly Temperature on Fisheries References 7. WIND STORMS AND SAND/DUST STORMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT AND PLANTS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Physiological Effect of Strong Winds on Plants 7.3 Wind storms and Squalls and their Impact on Plants 7.4 Environmental Aspects of Sand Storm/Dust Storm and Desert Winds 7.5 Erosion by Wind 7.6 Strong Winds and Land Degradation 7.7 Impact of Sand and Dust Storms on Agriculture and Livestock 7.8 Effect of Strong Wind on Forestry and Woodlands 7.9 Measures to Protect Crops from Wind Storms and Sand Storms 7.10 Sand and Dust Storm Warning System for Agricultural use References 8. FOREST- AND BUSH-FIRE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Basic Principles of Combustion 8.3 Role of Weather in Forest Fires 8.3.1 Onset of fire danger period 8.3.2 Humidity/dryness of vegetation as fuels 8.3.3 Lightning as fire setting agency 8.4 Post-ignition Influence of Weather on Fire Behaviour 8.4.1 Influence on low-intensity fires 8.4.2 Influence on high-intensity fires 8.4.3 Influence of wind and slopes on fire 8.5 Man-made Fire 8.6 Fire Danger Rating Systems 8.7 Fire-weather Forecasting Services 8.7.1 Development of early warning system-fire (EWS-Fire) 8.8 Fire behavior Prediction 8.9 Remote Sensing Application of Fire Monitoring and Fire Danger Assessment 8.10 Environmental Impacts of Forest Fires 8.11 Models used for Forecasting, Warning and Evaluation of Wild Land Fires References 9. PEST AND DISEASES OF CROP AND LIVESTOCK 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Weather aspect of Crop Pests and Diseases 9.3 Locusts 9.3.1 Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) 9.3.2 Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) 9.3.3 Red locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata) 9.3.4 Brown locust (Locustana pardalina) 9.3.5 Moroccan locust (Dochistaurus maroccanus) 9.3.6 Bombay locust (Nomadacris succincta) 9.3.7 Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera) 9.3.8 South American locust (Schistocerca cancellata) 9.3.9 Sahelian tree locust (Anacridium melanorhodon) 9.3.10 Senegalese grasshoper (Oedaleus senegalensis) 9.4 Effects of Weather on Locusts 9.5 Insect Pests and Climatic Factors 9.5.1 European corn borer 9.5.2 Pink bollworm 9.5.3 Lobesia botrana (vine pests) 9.6 Insect Pests with Long Range Migration 9.6.1 African Armyworm (spodoptera exempta) 9.6.2 Oriental Armyworm (mythimna reparata) 9.7 Animal Diseases 9.7.1 Foot-and-mouth disease virus 9.7.2 Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) 9.8 Livestock Protection Measure and Forecasting Animal Diseases 9.9 Virus Diseases of Plants 9.9.1 Tobacco mosaic virus 9.9.2 Ratoon stunting diseases of sugarcane 9.10 Fungi 9.10.1 Powdery mildew of cereals 9.10.2 Loose smut of wheat 9.11 Plant Diseases caused by Bacteria 9.11.1 Citrus canker 9.11.2 Angular leaf spot or black arm of cotton 9.12 Rodent 9.13 Crop Disease Forecast and Crop Protection Measures 9.13.1 Production of warnings and information for crop protection measures 9.13.2 Methods of dissemination of warnings and information 9.14 Mathematical Models for Control of Pests and Diseases and Integrated Pest Management References 10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMIS AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Earthquakes 10.3 Causes of Earthquakes 10.4 Effect of Earthquakes on Surface Water 10.4.1 Oscillations in wells 10.4.2 Earthquake fountains 10.4.3 Seiches 10.5 Tsunamis and their Genesis 10.6 The Tsunami Disaster of December 26, 2004 10.6.1 Impact of the 2004 tsunami: Polltion and health hazard 10.6.2 Impact of tsunamis on soil and water 10.6.3 Tsunami management in India 10.7 Secondary Effects of Earthquakes 10.7.1 Landslides and Mudslides 10.8 Nature of Earthquake Damage 10.9 Socio-Economic Aspects of Earthquake Hazards 10.10 Role of Public during an Earthquake 10.11 Role of Public after an Earthquake 10.12 Volcanic Eruptions 10.12.1 Lava flows and ash clouds 10.12.2 Volcanic energy 10.12.3 The water-magma bomb 10.13 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions 10.13.1 Dust in the atmosphere 10.13.2 Volcanic mudslides 10.13.3 Death and destruction 10.14 Environmental and Agricultural Significance of Volcanic Ash Soils 10.15 Impact of Volcanic Ash on Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock and Mitigation Scope 10.16 Volcanic Products as Fertilizers or other Uses 10.17 Harnessing the Earth's Energy 10.18 Prediction of volcanic eruptions 10.19 Safety Measures against Volcanic Eruptions References 11. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS ON SOIL, WATER AND AIR POLLUTION 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Fertilizers 11.3 Pesticides 11.4 Insecticides 1105 Fungicides 11.6 Herbicides 11.7 Rodenticides 11.8 Biological Control of Pests 11.9 Water Pollution from Agricultural Chemicals 11.9.1 Eutrophication of surface water 11.9.2 Aquaculture as a source of agricultural pollution 11.9.3 Mitigation of agricultural chemical impacts on water resources 11.10 Water Pollution and Livestock Farming 11.11 Land Pollution and Livestock Farming 11.12 Water pollution from soil erosion 11.13 Factors Affecting Air Pollution 11.14 Aerosols and smog affecting plants 11.15 Gaseous Contaminants Affecting Vegetation 11.15.1 Sulphur compounds 11.15.2 Halogen compounds 11.15.3 Nitrogen compounds 11.15.4 Other gases and materials 11.16 Effects of Air Pollution on Vegetation 11.17.1 Pollutant stress factors affecting plant physiology 11.17.2 Pollutant induced foliar markings 11.18 Effects of air pollution on a livestock 11.19 Acid rain and vegetation 11.19.1 Effect of acidification on soil and vegetation 11.19.2 H2SO4 aerosols damage to vegetation 11.19.3 Acid deposition on the plant surface 11.19.4 Chemical effects of acid precipitation on leaf tissues 11.19.5 Acid rain and its effect on trees 11.19.6 Acidity of rain and aquatic systems 11.20 Pollutants and Soil 11.20.1 The effects of acid precipitation on the soil 12. CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTREME EVENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Climate Change and Natural Disasters 12.2.1 High intensity rainfall and floods 12.2.2 Droughts 12.2.3 Tropical stroms and strong winds 12.2.4 Extreme temperatures, heat waves and cold waves 12.2.5 Wildfires and bushfires 12.3 Thawing Permafrost and Climate Change 12.4 Eurasia Warming, Snowmelt and Phytoplankton Blooms 12.5 Regionwise Impacht of Extreme Events and Climate Change 12.5.1. Asia 12.5.2 Southwest Pacific 12.5.3 Africa 12.5.4 Latin America 12.5.5 Europe 12.5.6 North America 12.6 Projections of the Disaster-related Effects of Climate Change 12.7 Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture 12.7.1. Land and water management strategies 12.7.2 Pest management 12.7.3 Heat- and drought-tolerant varieties 12.7.4 Livestock management 12.7.5 Health sector 12.7.6 Awareness raising and education 12.7.8. Early warning systems