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Agrometeorology in Extreme Events and Natural Disasters

Agrometeorology in Extreme Events and Natural Disasters

By: Haripada P. Das (author)Hardback

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Despite the current technological advancement, agriculture is still a vital source of livelihood. It is essentially dependent on weather and climate, and adversely affected by extreme events in this respect. Over the past few decades, extreme events such as droughts, floods, storms, tropical cyclones and forest fires have destroyed economic and social infrastructure and at the same time endangered food security. The agricultural sector is affected through the impact on water resources, damage to crops, rangelands and forests, due to incidence of droughts, locust plagues and wildland fires. While natural hazards may not be avoided, the integration of risk assessment and early warnings, with prevention and mitigation measures, can prevent them from becoming disasters. Improved forecast accuracy and mroe focused information on the location, intensity and duration of climate extremes could underpin efforts to implement more effective risk management strategies. This book, based on state of the art knowledge on the science and application of agricultural meteorology needed to better cope with extreme climate events, should be of interest to all organizations and agencies engaged in planning disaster reduction strategies and mitigation of extreme events.

About Author

Dr. Haripada Das, former Deputy Director General of Meteorology of the India Meteorological Department was in-charge of the Division of Agricultural Meteorology, Pune and in that capacit, has been executing the operational and research projects of the Division. He has actively participated in many Agricultural Meteorology Programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a member/chairman/leader of several Working Groups and Expert Teams of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology. With over 35 years of experience in agrometeorological research and applications and teaching in various aspects of Agricultural Meteorology, Dr. Das has authored over 175 research papers and articles, as well as several other technical publications including WMO Techinical Notes and Training materials. He is a recipient of the award of the WMO Commission for Agricultural Meteorology for his outstanding contributions and exceptional service to the commission.


1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EXTREME EVENTS IN RELATION TO AGROMETEOROLOGY 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Natural Disasters - Definitions and Types 1.3 The Role of Meteorological Data and Information1.4 Socio-economic Impact of Extreme Events 1.5 Positive Impact on Agriculture of Extreme Events 1.6 Negative Impact on Agriculture of Extreme Events1.7 Impact of Natural Disasters on Rangeland and Forestry1.8 Impact of Natural Disasters on environment1.9 Extreme events and risk management in agriculture1.10 Early Warning Systems for Extreme Events1.11 Remote Sensing Techniques for Disaster Risk Management1.12 Prevention of and Preparedness for Extreme Events1.13 Rehabilitation1.14 Implications and Future Needs 2. DROUGHT AND DESERTIFICATION2.1 Introduction 2.2 Concept of Drought 2.3 Drought and Aridity 2.4 Classification of Drought2.4.1 Meteorological drought 2.4.2 Agricultural drought2.4.3 Hydrological drought2.4.4 Socio-economic drought2.5 Space-time Characteristics of Drought 2.5.1 Spatial extent 2.5.2 Beginning and end of drought2.6 Causes of Drought 2.7 Monitoring and Early Warning of Drought2.8 Drought Indices2.8.1 Meteorological drought indices2.8.2 Agricultural indices of drought 2.8.3 Hydrological drought indices2.9 Drought Prediction2.10 Impacts of drought2.10.1 Drought and agriculture 2.10.2 Response of plants to drought condition2.11 Socio-economic Aspects of Drought2.12 Beneficial Aspects of Drought2.13 Drought Risk Reduction Strategies2.14 Adaptations and Adjustments to Drought2.15 Drought Management2.16 Drought Planning and Climate Change2.17 Drought Mitigation2.18 Drought Index Insurance2.19 Drought and human health2.20 Desertification2.20.1 Definition of desertification2.21 Distribution of Desertification2.22 Desertification Trend2.23 Desertification Processes2.23.1 Agrometeorological aspects in the desertification process2.24 Causes of Desertification2.24.1 Natural factors leading to desertification2.24.2 Anthropogenic factors2.25 Desertification and Feedback Mechanism2.26 Desertification and Development2.27 Monitoring and Assessment of Desertification2.27.1 Remote sensing application 2.27.2 Meteorlogical and hydrological analysis2.27.3 Universal soil loss equation2.28 Strategies to Combat DesertificationReferences 3. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING TO COMBAT MOISTURE DEFICIT IN PLANTS3.1 Introduction3.2 Irrigation Scheduling of Crops3.2.1 Irrigation scheduling under adequate water supply3.2.2 Irrigation scheduling under limited water supply3.3 Irrigation Methods3.4 Components of Irrigation Schedule3.4.1 Water application depth3.4.2 Water application duration3.4.3 Water application timing and irrigation interval3.4.4 Net irrigation requirements3.4.5 Leaching requirements3.5 Irrigation Scheduling Techniques3.5.1 Plant observation3.5.2 Soil moisture meters3.5.3 Cumulative pan evaporation3.5.4 Soil water budget3.6 The Soil Water Balance Method3.6.1 Simple scheduling method 3.6.2 Rapid scheduling method 3.6.3 Graphical scheduling method 3.6.4 Real time scheduling3.7 Irrigation Efficiencies3.8 Gross Irrigation RequirementsReferences 4. HEAVY RAINS, FLOODS, HAILS AND SNOW AND THEIR IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE4.1 Introduction 4.2 Floods and their Cause4.3 Forecasting and Warning of Flood for Safety Measures4.3.1 Flash floods forecasting 4.4 Flood Control and Management 4.5 Protection against Floods4.6 Flood Fighting4.7 Livelihood Security in the Flood Plains4.8 Heavy Rains and Flooding and their Impacts on Agriculture4.9 Water-logging and its Effect on Plants4.10 Symptoms of Flooding Damage4.11 Causes of Flooding Damage4.12 Mitigation of Flood Damage on Agricultural Sector4.13 Landslides4.13.1 Control of landslides4.14 Avalanches4.15 The Erosion Process and its Agricultural Implications4.15.1 Fluvial erosion4.16 Coastal Erosion and Protection4.16.1 Sea waves4.16.2 Tide-storm surges4.16.3 Near-shore currents4.17 Hail 4.17.1 Temporal and spatial distribution of hail 4.17.2 Hail and crop damage 4.17.3 Hail forecasting methods 4.17.4 Hail prevention 4.18 Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground4.18.1 Hydrological aspects of snow and ice 4.18.2 Thermal aspects of snow 4.18.3 Regular snowfall and its implications for agriculture 4.18.4 Intermittent snowfall and its implications for agriculture 4.18.5 Wind breaks and snow deposition References 5. TROPICAL CYCLONES, STORM SURGES, THUNDERSTORMS, TORNADOES AND SQUALLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE5.1 Introduction5.2 Geographical Distribution of Tropical Cyclones5.3 Energy of Tropical Cyclones5.4 Atmospheric Parameters and Tropical Cyclone Formation5.5 Structure of the Tropical Cyclone5.6 Heavy Rain associated with Tropical Cyclones5.7 Storm Surges5.7.1 Protection from the storm surge5.8 Monitoring and Forecasting of Tropical Cyclones5.9 Destruction caused by Tropical Storms5.9.1 Salt deposition in coastal areas5.10 Agrometeorological Loss associated with Cyclones5.11 Socio-Economic Vulnerability5.12 Beneficial Impact of Cyclonic Storms5.13 Cyclone Warning Systems5.14 Cyclone Disaster Management and Mitigation Measures5.14.1 Prevention and preparedness planning5.14.2 Cyclone preparedness in the agricultural system5.14.3 Cyclone preparedness for non-agricultural sector5.14.4 Evacuation5.15 Mitigation Measures5.16 Community-based Vulnerability Reduction Programmes5.16.1 Community based capacity building and livelihood concern5.17 Thunderstorms5.17.1 Conditions favourable for thunderstorms5.17.2 Beneficial effects of thunderstorms5.17.3 Thunderstorms hazards5.18 Squall Lines5.19 Tornadoes and Water Spouts5.19.1 Meteorological forecasts and warnings for tornedoes5.19.2 Precautions for safetyReferences 6. AGROMETEOROLOGY RELATED TO EXTREME TEMPERATURES, HEAT WAVES AND FROST6.1 Introduction6.2 Effect of Extremely High Temperature (including heat waves) on plants6.2.1 Heat waves and crop production6.3 Mitigation Practices to Cope with High Temperatures6.4 Effect of Low Temperature and Cold Spell on Plants6.4.1 Chilling damage6.4.2 Plant freezing damage6.5 Frost6.5.1 Causes of frost6.5.2 Effect of frost on plants6.5.3 Intensity of frost damage to plants in relation to soil temperature and snow cover6.5.4 Protection against frost damage6.5.5 Forecast and warning of frost6.6 Climate and Animal Husbandry6.6.1 Effect on livestock of extreme temperatures6.6.2 Effect on livestock of low temperatures6.6.3 Effect on livestock of high temperatures6.7 Provision of Proper Environmental Conditions for Livestock6.8 Effect of Climatic Factors Particularly Temperature on FisheriesReferences 7. WIND STORMS AND SAND/DUST STORMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT AND PLANTS7.1 Introduction7.2 The Physiological Effect of Strong Winds on Plants7.3 Wind storms and Squalls and their Impact on Plants7.4 Environmental Aspects of Sand Storm/Dust Storm and Desert Winds 7.5 Erosion by Wind7.6 Strong Winds and Land Degradation7.7 Impact of Sand and Dust Storms on Agriculture and Livestock7.8 Effect of Strong Wind on Forestry and Woodlands7.9 Measures to Protect Crops from Wind Storms and Sand Storms7.10 Sand and Dust Storm Warning System for Agricultural useReferences 8. FOREST- AND BUSH-FIRE AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT8.1 Introduction8.2 Basic Principles of Combustion8.3 Role of Weather in Forest Fires8.3.1 Onset of fire danger period8.3.2 Humidity/dryness of vegetation as fuels8.3.3 Lightning as fire setting agency8.4 Post-ignition Influence of Weather on Fire Behaviour8.4.1 Influence on low-intensity fires8.4.2 Influence on high-intensity fires8.4.3 Influence of wind and slopes on fire8.5 Man-made Fire8.6 Fire Danger Rating Systems8.7 Fire-weather Forecasting Services8.7.1 Development of early warning system-fire (EWS-Fire) 8.8 Fire behavior Prediction8.9 Remote Sensing Application of Fire Monitoring and Fire Danger Assessment8.10 Environmental Impacts of Forest Fires8.11 Models used for Forecasting, Warning and Evaluation of Wild Land FiresReferences 9. PEST AND DISEASES OF CROP AND LIVESTOCK9.1 Introduction 9.2 Weather aspect of Crop Pests and Diseases9.3 Locusts 9.3.1 Desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) 9.3.2 Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) 9.3.3 Red locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata)9.3.4 Brown locust (Locustana pardalina) 9.3.5 Moroccan locust (Dochistaurus maroccanus) 9.3.6 Bombay locust (Nomadacris succincta) 9.3.7 Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera)9.3.8 South American locust (Schistocerca cancellata)9.3.9 Sahelian tree locust (Anacridium melanorhodon) 9.3.10 Senegalese grasshoper (Oedaleus senegalensis)9.4 Effects of Weather on Locusts9.5 Insect Pests and Climatic Factors 9.5.1 European corn borer 9.5.2 Pink bollworm9.5.3 Lobesia botrana (vine pests) 9.6 Insect Pests with Long Range Migration 9.6.1 African Armyworm (spodoptera exempta) 9.6.2 Oriental Armyworm (mythimna reparata)9.7 Animal Diseases9.7.1 Foot-and-mouth disease virus9.7.2 Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD)9.8 Livestock Protection Measure and Forecasting Animal Diseases9.9 Virus Diseases of Plants9.9.1 Tobacco mosaic virus9.9.2 Ratoon stunting diseases of sugarcane9.10 Fungi9.10.1 Powdery mildew of cereals9.10.2 Loose smut of wheat9.11 Plant Diseases caused by Bacteria9.11.1 Citrus canker9.11.2 Angular leaf spot or black arm of cotton 9.12 Rodent9.13 Crop Disease Forecast and Crop Protection Measures9.13.1 Production of warnings and information for crop protection measures9.13.2 Methods of dissemination of warnings and information 9.14 Mathematical Models for Control of Pests and Diseases and Integrated Pest ManagementReferences 10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMIS AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS10.1 Introduction 10.2 Earthquakes 10.3 Causes of Earthquakes 10.4 Effect of Earthquakes on Surface Water 10.4.1 Oscillations in wells 10.4.2 Earthquake fountains 10.4.3 Seiches 10.5 Tsunamis and their Genesis10.6 The Tsunami Disaster of December 26, 200410.6.1 Impact of the 2004 tsunami: Polltion and health hazard10.6.2 Impact of tsunamis on soil and water10.6.3 Tsunami management in India10.7 Secondary Effects of Earthquakes10.7.1 Landslides and Mudslides10.8 Nature of Earthquake Damage10.9 Socio-Economic Aspects of Earthquake Hazards10.10 Role of Public during an Earthquake10.11 Role of Public after an Earthquake10.12 Volcanic Eruptions10.12.1 Lava flows and ash clouds10.12.2 Volcanic energy10.12.3 The water-magma bomb10.13 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions10.13.1 Dust in the atmosphere10.13.2 Volcanic mudslides10.13.3 Death and destruction10.14 Environmental and Agricultural Significance of Volcanic Ash Soils10.15 Impact of Volcanic Ash on Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock and Mitigation Scope10.16 Volcanic Products as Fertilizers or other Uses10.17 Harnessing the Earth's Energy 10.18 Prediction of volcanic eruptions10.19 Safety Measures against Volcanic EruptionsReferences 11. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS ON SOIL, WATER AND AIR POLLUTION11.1 Introduction11.2 Fertilizers11.3 Pesticides11.4 Insecticides1105 Fungicides11.6 Herbicides11.7 Rodenticides11.8 Biological Control of Pests11.9 Water Pollution from Agricultural Chemicals11.9.1 Eutrophication of surface water 11.9.2 Aquaculture as a source of agricultural pollution11.9.3 Mitigation of agricultural chemical impacts on water resources11.10 Water Pollution and Livestock Farming11.11 Land Pollution and Livestock Farming11.12 Water pollution from soil erosion11.13 Factors Affecting Air Pollution11.14 Aerosols and smog affecting plants11.15 Gaseous Contaminants Affecting Vegetation11.15.1 Sulphur compounds 11.15.2 Halogen compounds 11.15.3 Nitrogen compounds 11.15.4 Other gases and materials 11.16 Effects of Air Pollution on Vegetation11.17.1 Pollutant stress factors affecting plant physiology 11.17.2 Pollutant induced foliar markings 11.18 Effects of air pollution on a livestock 11.19 Acid rain and vegetation 11.19.1 Effect of acidification on soil and vegetation 11.19.2 H2SO4 aerosols damage to vegetation 11.19.3 Acid deposition on the plant surface 11.19.4 Chemical effects of acid precipitation on leaf tissues11.19.5 Acid rain and its effect on trees 11.19.6 Acidity of rain and aquatic systems11.20 Pollutants and Soil 11.20.1 The effects of acid precipitation on the soil 12. CLIMATE CHANGE AND EXTREME EVENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE 12.1 Introduction12.2 Climate Change and Natural Disasters12.2.1 High intensity rainfall and floods12.2.2 Droughts12.2.3 Tropical stroms and strong winds12.2.4 Extreme temperatures, heat waves and cold waves12.2.5 Wildfires and bushfires12.3 Thawing Permafrost and Climate Change12.4 Eurasia Warming, Snowmelt and Phytoplankton Blooms12.5 Regionwise Impacht of Extreme Events and Climate Change12.5.1. Asia12.5.2 Southwest Pacific12.5.3 Africa12.5.4 Latin America12.5.5 Europe12.5.6 North America12.6 Projections of the Disaster-related Effects of Climate Change12.7 Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in Agriculture12.7.1. Land and water management strategies12.7.2 Pest management12.7.3 Heat- and drought-tolerant varieties12.7.4 Livestock management12.7.5 Health sector12.7.6 Awareness raising and education12.7.8. Early warning systems

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780415621120
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 600
  • ID: 9780415621120
  • weight: 738
  • ISBN10: 0415621127

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